OMNIA SCIENTIA

OMNIA SCIENTIA

OMNIA SCIENTIA

OMNIA SCIENTIA

OMNIA SCIENTIA

ASTRONOMIA NOVA

ASTRONOMIA NOVA

ASTRONOMIA NOVA

ASTRONOMIA NOVA

ASTRONOMIA NOVA

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
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Ablation
Geology Term
A
… is the removal of material from the surface of a meteor as it travels through the atmosphere of a planetary body.



Ablation
Geology Term
A
… is the removal of material from the surface of a meteor as it travels through the atmosphere of a planetary body.



Ablation
Geology Term
A
… is the removal of material from the surface of a meteor as it travels through the atmosphere of a planetary body.



Ablation
Geology Term
A
… is the removal of material from the surface of a meteor as it travels through the atmosphere of a planetary body.



Ablation
Geology Term
A
… is the removal of material from the surface of a meteor as it travels through the atmosphere of a planetary body.



Absolute Magnitude
Astronomy Term
A
… is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale. It is equal to the comparative apparent magnitude of the object from 10 parsecs, 32.6 light years, with no extinction of its light due to absorption by interstellar dust particles. The more luminous an object, the smaller the numerical value of its absolute magnitude.

Invented by
Hipparchus of Greece, 147 BC




Absolute Magnitude
Astronomy Term
A
… is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale. It is equal to the comparative apparent magnitude of the object from 10 parsecs, 32.6 light years, with no extinction of its light due to absorption by interstellar dust particles. The more luminous an object, the smaller the numerical value of its absolute magnitude.

Invented by
Hipparchus of Greece, 147 BC




Absolute Magnitude
Astronomy Term
A
… is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale. It is equal to the comparative apparent magnitude of the object from 10 parsecs, 32.6 light years, with no extinction of its light due to absorption by interstellar dust particles. The more luminous an object, the smaller the numerical value of its absolute magnitude.

Invented by
Hipparchus of Greece, 147 BC




Absolute Magnitude
Astronomy Term
A
… is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale. It is equal to the comparative apparent magnitude of the object from 10 parsecs, 32.6 light years, with no extinction of its light due to absorption by interstellar dust particles. The more luminous an object, the smaller the numerical value of its absolute magnitude.

Invented by
Hipparchus of Greece, 147 BC




Absolute Magnitude
Astronomy Term
A
… is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale. It is equal to the comparative apparent magnitude of the object from 10 parsecs, 32.6 light years, with no extinction of its light due to absorption by interstellar dust particles. The more luminous an object, the smaller the numerical value of its absolute magnitude.

Invented by
Hipparchus of Greece, 147 BC




Absolute Zero
Fundamental Term
A
Absolute Zero = 0 degrees Kelvin (-273.16 degrees Celsius)

Discovered by
Robert William Boyle, 1665




Absolute Zero
Fundamental Term
A
Absolute Zero = 0 degrees Kelvin
(-273.16 degrees Celsius)

Discovered by
Robert William Boyle, 1665




Absolute Zero
Fundamental Term
A
Absolute Zero = 0 degrees Kelvin
(-273.16 degrees Celsius)

Discovered by
Robert William Boyle, 1665




Absolute Zero
Fundamental Term
A
Absolute Zero = 0 degrees Kelvin
(-273.16 degrees Celsius)

Discovered by
Robert William Boyle, 1665




Absolute Zero
Fundamental Term
A
Absolute Zero = 0 degrees Kelvin
(-273.16 degrees Celsius)

Discovered by
Robert William Boyle, 1665




Absorption Lines
Fundamental Term
A
… are dark lines within a sampled frequency spectrum, caused by the light absorption of chemical elements that emit and absorb radiated energy at those specific wavelengths, further helping to identify the composition of the star, celestial body or material.


Absorption Lines of Helios (Sun)

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1847




Absorption Lines
Fundamental Term
A
… are dark lines within a sampled frequency spectrum, caused by the light absorption of chemical elements that emit and absorb radiated energy at those specific wavelengths, further helping to identify the composition of the star, celestial body or material.


Absorption Lines of Helios (Sun)


LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1847




Absorption Lines
Fundamental Term
A
… are dark lines within a sampled frequency spectrum, caused by the light absorption of chemical elements that emit and absorb radiated energy at those specific wavelengths, further helping to identify the composition of the star, celestial body or material.


Absorption Lines of Helios (Sun)


LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1847




Absorption Lines
Fundamental Term
A
… are dark lines within a sampled frequency spectrum, caused by the light absorption of chemical elements that emit and absorb radiated energy at those specific wavelengths, further helping to identify the composition of the star, celestial body or material.


Absorption Lines of Helios (Sun)


LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1847




Absorption Lines
Fundamental Term
A
… are dark lines within a sampled frequency spectrum, caused by the light absorption of chemical elements that emit and absorb radiated energy at those specific wavelengths, further helping to identify the composition of the star, celestial body or material.


Absorption Lines of Helios (Sun)


LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1847




Accretion
Geology Term
A
… is a process where dust and gas accumulate into larger stellar and planetary bodies.



Accretion
Geology Term
A
… is a process where dust and gas accumulate into larger stellar and planetary bodies.



Accretion
Geology Term
A
… is a process where dust and gas accumulate into larger stellar and planetary bodies.



Accretion
Geology Term
A
… is a process where dust and gas accumulate into larger stellar and planetary bodies.



Accretion
Geology Term
A
… is a process where dust and gas accumulate into larger stellar and planetary bodies.



Accretion Disk
Geology Term
A
… disk of gas that accumulates around a central point of gravitational attraction. As a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole heat the surrounding gas, emitting radiation and visible light.



Accretion Disk
Geology Term
A
… disk of gas that accumulates around a central point of gravitational attraction. As a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole heat the surrounding gas, emitting radiation and visible light.



Accretion Disk
Geology Term
A
… disk of gas that accumulates around a central point of gravitational attraction. As a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole heat the surrounding gas, emitting radiation and visible light.



Accretion Disk
Geology Term
A
… disk of gas that accumulates around a central point of gravitational attraction. As a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole heat the surrounding gas, emitting radiation and visible light.



Accretion Disk
Geology Term
A
… disk of gas that accumulates around a central point of gravitational attraction. As a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole heat the surrounding gas, emitting radiation and visible light.



Achondrite
Geology Term
A
… is a stone meteorite that contains no chondrules.


Achondrite (NWA2482)

LD
SD
HD



NWA2118 L3 · NWA5206 LL3 · NWA2738 H3
NWA2892 HL3 · NWA6030 CV3




Achondrite
Geology Term
A
… is a stone meteorite that contains no chondrules.


Achondrite (NWA2482)

LD
SD
HD



NWA2118 L3 · NWA5206 LL3 · NWA2738 H3
NWA2892 HL3 · NWA6030 CV3




Achondrite
Geology Term
A
… is a stone meteorite that contains no chondrules.


Achondrite (NWA2482)

LD
SD
HD



NWA2118 L3 · NWA5206 LL3 · NWA2738 H3
NWA2892 HL3 · NWA6030 CV3




Achondrite
Geology Term
A
… is a stone meteorite that contains no chondrules.


Achondrite (NWA2482)

LD
SD
HD



NWA2118 L3 · NWA5206 LL3 · NWA2738 H3
NWA2892 HL3 · NWA6030 CV3




Achondrite
Geology Term
A
… is a stone meteorite that contains no chondrules.


Achondrite (NWA2482)

LD
SD
HD



NWA2118 L3 · NWA5206 LL3 · NWA2738 H3
NWA2892 HL3 · NWA6030 CV3




Achromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of two lenses made of a combination of crown and flint glass, that bring two wavelengths into focus (red & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Achromatic Doublet Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Chester Moore Hall, 1729




Achromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of two lenses made of a combination of crown and flint glass, that bring two wavelengths into focus (red & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Achromatic Doublet Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Chester Moore Hall, 1729




Achromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of two lenses made of a combination of crown and flint glass, that bring two wavelengths into focus (red & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Achromatic Doublet Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Chester Moore Hall, 1729




Achromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of two lenses made of a combination of crown and flint glass, that bring two wavelengths into focus (red & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Achromatic Doublet Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Chester Moore Hall, 1729




Achromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of two lenses made of a combination of crown and flint glass, that bring two wavelengths into focus (red & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Achromatic Doublet Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Chester Moore Hall, 1729




Active Galaxy
Secondary Plane
A
… are host to galactic nuclei that produce non-stellar emissions of radio, microwave, infrared, optical, ultra-violet, X-ray, and Gamma Ray waves, fed by an accretion of mass from a supermassive black hole. Quasars are active galactic nuclei and are the most powerful and luminous source of electromagnetic radiation in the universe.


Centaurus A (NGC5128)

LD
SD
HD



Cygnus A (M87) · NGC4261 · NGC4151
NGC1566 · Circinus Galaxy


Discovered by
Carl Keenan Seyfert, 1843




Active Galaxy
Secondary Plane
A
… are host to galactic nuclei that produce non-stellar emissions of radio, microwave, infrared, optical, ultra-violet, X-ray, and Gamma Ray waves, fed by an accretion of mass from a supermassive black hole. Quasars are active galactic nuclei and are the most powerful and luminous source of electromagnetic radiation in the universe.


Centaurus A (NGC5128)

LD
SD
HD



Cygnus A (M87) · NGC4261 · NGC4151
NGC1566 · Circinus Galaxy


Discovered by
Carl Keenan Seyfert, 1843




Active Galaxy
Secondary Plane
A
… are host to galactic nuclei that produce non-stellar emissions of radio, microwave, infrared, optical, ultra-violet, X-ray, and Gamma Ray waves, fed by an accretion of mass from a supermassive black hole. Quasars are active galactic nuclei and are the most powerful and luminous source of electromagnetic radiation in the universe.


Centaurus A (NGC5128)

LD
SD
HD



Cygnus A (M87) · NGC4261 · NGC4151
NGC1566 · Circinus Galaxy


Discovered by
Carl Keenan Seyfert, 1843




Active Galaxy
Secondary Plane
A
… are host to galactic nuclei that produce non-stellar emissions of radio, microwave, infrared, optical, ultra-violet, X-ray, and Gamma Ray waves, fed by an accretion of mass from a supermassive black hole. Quasars are active galactic nuclei and are the most powerful and luminous source of electromagnetic radiation in the universe.


Centaurus A (NGC5128)

LD
SD
HD



Cygnus A (M87) · NGC4261 · NGC4151
NGC1566 · Circinus Galaxy


Discovered by
Carl Keenan Seyfert, 1843




Active Galaxy
Secondary Plane
A
… are host to galactic nuclei that produce non-stellar emissions of radio, microwave, infrared, optical, ultra-violet, X-ray, and Gamma Ray waves, fed by an accretion of mass from a supermassive black hole. Quasars are active galactic nuclei and are the most powerful and luminous source of electromagnetic radiation in the universe.


Centaurus A (NGC5128)

LD
SD
HD



Cygnus A (M87) · NGC4261 · NGC4151
NGC1566 · Circinus Galaxy


Discovered by
Carl Keenan Seyfert, 1843




Afterglow
Astronomy Term
A
… is a diminishing fireball of a gamma-ray burst that is observable in less energetic wavelengths (X-ray, optical, and radio). After an explosion, the expanding gamma-ray burst decelerates, absorbs surrounding material that generate the afterglow, and can remain visible for several months.

Discovered by
The BeppoSAX Team, 1997




Afterglow
Astronomy Term
A
… is a diminishing fireball of a gamma-ray burst that is observable in less energetic wavelengths (X-ray, optical, and radio). After an explosion, the expanding gamma-ray burst decelerates, absorbs surrounding material that generate the afterglow, and can remain visible for several months.

Discovered by
The BeppoSAX Team, 1997




Afterglow
Astronomy Term
A
… is a diminishing fireball of a gamma-ray burst that is observable in less energetic wavelengths (X-ray, optical, and radio). After an explosion, the expanding gamma-ray burst decelerates, absorbs surrounding material that generate the afterglow, and can remain visible for several months.

Discovered by
The BeppoSAX Team, 1997




Afterglow
Astronomy Term
A
… is a diminishing fireball of a gamma-ray burst that is observable in less energetic wavelengths (X-ray, optical, and radio). After an explosion, the expanding gamma-ray burst decelerates, absorbs surrounding material that generate the afterglow, and can remain visible for several months.

Discovered by
The BeppoSAX Team, 1997




Afterglow
Astronomy Term
A
… is a diminishing fireball of a gamma-ray burst that is observable in less energetic wavelengths (X-ray, optical, and radio). After an explosion, the expanding gamma-ray burst decelerates, absorbs surrounding material that generate the afterglow, and can remain visible for several months.

Discovered in 1997 by
The BeppoSAX Team, ESA




Airy Disk
Imaging Term
A
… is the best focused point of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make and is only limited by the diffraction of light.


This fundamental diffraction pattern, the Airy Disk, has a central bright region, surrounded by a series of concentric rings of decreasing intensity and is the smallest point to which a beam of light can be focused, and is directly related to the wavelength of the illuminating light and the size of the circular aperture.


Airy Disk

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1828




Airy Disk
Imaging Term
A
… is the best focused point of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make and is only limited by the diffraction of light.


This fundamental diffraction pattern, the Airy Disk, has a central bright region, surrounded by a series of concentric rings of decreasing intensity and is the smallest point to which a beam of light can be focused, and is directly related to the wavelength of the illuminating light and the size of the circular aperture.


Airy Disk

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1828




Airy Disk
Imaging Term
A
… is the best focused point of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make and is only limited by the diffraction of light.


This fundamental diffraction pattern, the Airy Disk, has a central bright region, surrounded by a series of concentric rings of decreasing intensity and is the smallest point to which a beam of light can be focused, and is directly related to the wavelength of the illuminating light and the size of the circular aperture.


Airy Disk

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1828




Airy Disk
Imaging Term
A
… is the best focused point of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make and is only limited by the diffraction of light.


This fundamental diffraction pattern, the Airy Disk, has a central bright region, surrounded by a series of concentric rings of decreasing intensity and is the smallest point to which a beam of light can be focused, and is directly related to the wavelength of the illuminating light and the size of the circular aperture.


Airy Disk

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1828




Airy Disk
Imaging Term
A
… is the best focused point of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make and is only limited by the diffraction of light.


This fundamental diffraction pattern, the Airy Disk, has a central bright region, surrounded by a series of concentric rings of decreasing intensity and is the smallest point to which a beam of light can be focused, and is directly related to the wavelength of the illuminating light and the size of the circular aperture.


Airy Disk

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1828




Albedo
Astronomy Term
A
… is the reflective property of a non-luminous object and is expressed as the ratio of total-reflected light. A perfect mirror has an albedo of 100% whilst a black hole would have an albedo of 0%.

Discovered by
Johann Heinrich Lambert, 1760




Albedo
Astronomy Term
A
… is the reflective property of a non-luminous object and is expressed as the ratio of total-reflected light. A perfect mirror has an albedo of 100% whilst a black hole would have an albedo of 0%.

Discovered by
Johann Heinrich Lambert, 1760




Albedo
Astronomy Term
A
… is the reflective property of a non-luminous object and is expressed as the ratio of total-reflected light. A perfect mirror has an albedo of 100% whilst a black hole would have an albedo of 0%.

Discovered by
Johann Heinrich Lambert, 1760




Albedo
Astronomy Term
A
… is the reflective property of a non-luminous object and is expressed as the ratio of total-reflected light. A perfect mirror has an albedo of 100% whilst a black hole would have an albedo of 0%.

Discovered by
Johann Heinrich Lambert, 1760




Albedo
Astronomy Term
A
… is the reflective property of a non-luminous object and is expressed as the ratio of total-reflected light. A perfect mirror has an albedo of 100% whilst a black hole would have an albedo of 0%.

Discovered by
Johann Heinrich Lambert, 1760




Allocthonous
Geology Term
A
… are geological materials that are found in a location that does not belong the area.



Allocthonous
Geology Term
A
… are geological materials that are found in a location that does not belong the area.



Allocthonous
Geology Term
A
… are geological materials that are found in a location that does not belong the area.



Allocthonous
Geology Term
A
… are geological materials that are found in a location that does not belong the area.



Allocthonous
Geology Term
A
… are geological materials that are found in a location that does not belong the area.



Angular Momentum
Fundamental Term
A
… is a property of stellar or planetary motion and is a conserved quantity, remaining constant, unless acted upon by an external torque. Unlike momentum, angular momentum depends on the chosen origin, as the measure results from the position of a particle under observation. The angular momentum is relational to the angular velocity, of an object (orbit rotation speed) via the moment of inertia (rotational mass distribution). While the angular velocity always points in the direction of the rotation axis, the angular momentum may point in a different direction depending on how the mass is distributed.

Discovered by
Pierre-Simon Laplace, 1799




Angular Momentum
Fundamental Term
A
… is a property of stellar or planetary motion and is a conserved quantity, remaining constant, unless acted upon by an external torque. Unlike momentum, angular momentum depends on the chosen origin, as the measure results from the position of a particle under observation. The angular momentum is relational to the angular velocity, of an object (orbit rotation speed) via the moment of inertia (rotational mass distribution). While the angular velocity always points in the direction of the rotation axis, the angular momentum may point in a different direction depending on how the mass is distributed.

Discovered by
Pierre-Simon Laplace, 1799




Angular Momentum
Fundamental Term
A
… is a property of stellar or planetary motion and is a conserved quantity, remaining constant, unless acted upon by an external torque. Unlike momentum, angular momentum depends on the chosen origin, as the measure results from the position of a particle under observation. The angular momentum is relational to the angular velocity, of an object (orbit rotation speed) via the moment of inertia (rotational mass distribution). While the angular velocity always points in the direction of the rotation axis, the angular momentum may point in a different direction depending on how the mass is distributed.

Discovered by
Pierre-Simon Laplace, 1799




Angular Momentum
Fundamental Term
A
… is a property of stellar or planetary motion and is a conserved quantity, remaining constant, unless acted upon by an external torque. Unlike momentum, angular momentum depends on the chosen origin, as the measure results from the position of a particle under observation. The angular momentum is relational to the angular velocity, of an object (orbit rotation speed) via the moment of inertia (rotational mass distribution). While the angular velocity always points in the direction of the rotation axis, the angular momentum may point in a different direction depending on how the mass is distributed.

Discovered by
Pierre-Simon Laplace, 1799




Angular Momentum
Fundamental Term
A
… is a property of stellar or planetary motion and is a conserved quantity, remaining constant, unless acted upon by an external torque. Unlike momentum, angular momentum depends on the chosen origin, as the measure results from the position of a particle under observation. The angular momentum is relational to the angular velocity, of an object (orbit rotation speed) via the moment of inertia (rotational mass distribution). While the angular velocity always points in the direction of the rotation axis, the angular momentum may point in a different direction depending on how the mass is distributed.

Discovered by
Pierre-Simon Laplace, 1799




Angular Resolution
Imaging Term
A
… is the smallest angular separation that an instrument can observe, with two defined points of light, appearing as two separate objects.



Angular Resolution
Imaging Term
A
… is the smallest angular separation that an instrument can observe, with two defined points of light, appearing as two separate objects.



Angular Resolution
Imaging Term
A
… is the smallest angular separation that an instrument can observe, with two defined points of light, appearing as two separate objects.



Angular Resolution
Imaging Term
A
… is the smallest angular separation that an instrument can observe, with two defined points of light, appearing as two separate objects.



Angular Resolution
Imaging Term
A
… is the smallest angular separation that an instrument can observe, with two defined points of light, appearing as two separate objects.



Annular Eclipse
Astronomy Term
A
… is a solar eclipse, with the moon covering all except for a bright ring (annulus) around the circumference of the sun.


Annular Eclipse

LD
SD
HD





Annular Eclipse
Astronomy Term
A
… is a solar eclipse, with the moon covering all except for a bright ring (annulus) around the circumference of the sun.


Annular Eclipse

LD
SD
HD





Annular Eclipse
Astronomy Term
A
… is a solar eclipse, with the moon covering all except for a bright ring (annulus) around the circumference of the sun.


Annular Eclipse

LD
SD
HD





Annular Eclipse
Astronomy Term
A
… is a solar eclipse, with the moon covering all except for a bright ring (annulus) around the circumference of the sun.


Annular Eclipse

LD
SD
HD





Annular Eclipse
Astronomy Term
A
… is a solar eclipse, with the moon covering all except for a bright ring (annulus) around the circumference of the sun.


Annular Eclipse

LD
SD
HD





Antimatter
Fundamental Term
A
… is matter with the same mass and opposing charge, an antiparticle partner to particles. Thunderstorms create terrestrial gamma ray flashes that release electrons that are accelerated into space and collide with atoms, releasing gamma rays that in turn release photons, colliding again into another atom, transforming into electron (matter) positron (antimatter) pairs. Collisions between any particle and its anti-particle partner leads to their mutual annihilation, giving rise to intense photons of gamma rays, neutrinos, and sometimes less-massive particle–antiparticle pairs.


Antimatter in the form of anti-atoms (antihelium) have been created and individual antimatter particles, are commonly produced by particle accelerators, resulting from specific forms of radioactive decay.


Antimatter from Lightning

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Carl David Anderson, 1932




Antimatter
Fundamental Term
A
… is matter with the same mass and opposing charge, an antiparticle partner to particles. Thunderstorms create terrestrial gamma ray flashes that release electrons that are accelerated into space and collide with atoms, releasing gamma rays that in turn release photons, colliding again into another atom, transforming into electron (matter) positron (antimatter) pairs. Collisions between any particle and its anti-particle partner leads to their mutual annihilation, giving rise to intense photons of gamma rays, neutrinos, and sometimes less-massive particle–antiparticle pairs.


Antimatter in the form of anti-atoms (antihelium) have been created and individual antimatter particles, are commonly produced by particle accelerators, resulting from specific forms of radioactive decay.


Antimatter from Lightning

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Carl David Anderson, 1932




Antimatter
Fundamental Term
A
… is matter with the same mass and opposing charge, an antiparticle partner to particles. Thunderstorms create terrestrial gamma ray flashes that release electrons that are accelerated into space and collide with atoms, releasing gamma rays that in turn release photons, colliding again into another atom, transforming into electron (matter) positron (antimatter) pairs. Collisions between any particle and its anti-particle partner leads to their mutual annihilation, giving rise to intense photons of gamma rays, neutrinos, and sometimes less-massive particle–antiparticle pairs.


Antimatter in the form of anti-atoms (antihelium) have been created and individual antimatter particles, are commonly produced by particle accelerators, resulting from specific forms of radioactive decay.


Antimatter from Lightning

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Carl David Anderson, 1932




Antimatter
Fundamental Term
A
… is matter with the same mass and opposing charge, an antiparticle partner to particles. Thunderstorms create terrestrial gamma ray flashes that release electrons that are accelerated into space and collide with atoms, releasing gamma rays that in turn release photons, colliding again into another atom, transforming into electron (matter) positron (antimatter) pairs. Collisions between any particle and its anti-particle partner leads to their mutual annihilation, giving rise to intense photons of gamma rays, neutrinos, and sometimes less-massive particle–antiparticle pairs.


Antimatter in the form of anti-atoms (antihelium) have been created and individual antimatter particles, are commonly produced by particle accelerators, resulting from specific forms of radioactive decay.


Antimatter from Lightning

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Carl David Anderson, 1932




Antimatter
Fundamental Term
A
… is matter with the same mass and opposing charge, an antiparticle partner to particles. Thunderstorms create terrestrial gamma ray flashes that release electrons that are accelerated into space and collide with atoms, releasing gamma rays that in turn release photons, colliding again into another atom, transforming into electron (matter) positron (antimatter) pairs. Collisions between any particle and its anti-particle partner leads to their mutual annihilation, giving rise to intense photons of gamma rays, neutrinos, and sometimes less-massive particle–antiparticle pairs.


Antimatter in the form of anti-atoms (antihelium) have been created and individual antimatter particles, are commonly produced by particle accelerators, resulting from specific forms of radioactive decay.


Antimatter from Lightning

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Carl David Anderson, 1932




Apochromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of three lenses that bring three wavelengths into one common focal point (red, green & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Apochromatic Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Ernst Karl Abbe, 1868




Apochromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of three lenses that bring three wavelengths into one common focal point (red, green & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Apochromatic Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Ernst Karl Abbe, 1868




Apochromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of three lenses that bring three wavelengths into one common focal point (red, green & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Apochromatic Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Ernst Karl Abbe, 1868




Apochromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of three lenses that bring three wavelengths into one common focal point (red, green & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Apochromatic Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Ernst Karl Abbe, 1868




Apochromatic Lens
Imaging Equipment
A
… is a combination of three lenses that bring three wavelengths into one common focal point (red, green & blue) on the same plane to eradicate chromatic aberrations from images.


Apochromatic Lens

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Ernst Karl Abbe, 1868




Archean Eon
Geology Timeline
A
3,800 to 2,500 Million Years Ago


Oxygen Creation Epoch



Archean Eon
Geology Timeline
A
3,800 to 2,500 Million Years Ago


Oxygen Creation Epoch



Archean Eon
Geology Timeline
A
3,800 to 2,500 Million Years Ago


Oxygen Creation Epoch



Archean Eon
Geology Timeline
A
3,800 to 2,500 Million Years Ago


Oxygen Creation Epoch



Archean Eon
Geology Timeline
A
3,800 to 2,500 Million Years Ago


Oxygen Creation Epoch



Asteroid
Quinary Plane
A
… born within a solar nebula and mainly composed of mineral and rock, asteroids are planetary bodies that are smaller than dwarf planets. Known as minor planets, planetoids, or remnants of planetesimals, are largely found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids are an astronomical body, that directly orbits (or co-orbits as the prime dominant sibling of a planetary system) a parent nucleus with a singular (star or black hole) or multiple (stars or black holes) of greater mass. There are an estimated 1.9 million known Asteroids, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter.


Psyche Asteroid

LD
SD
HD



Vesta · Pallas · Hygiea · Euphrosyne · Interamnia
Davida · Herculina · Eunomia · Juno


Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Asteroid
Quinary Plane
A
… born within a solar nebula and mainly composed of mineral and rock, asteroids are planetary bodies that are smaller than dwarf planets. Known as minor planets, planetoids, or remnants of planetesimals, are largely found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids are an astronomical body, that directly orbits (or co-orbits as the prime dominant sibling of a planetary system) a parent nucleus with a singular (star or black hole) or multiple (stars or black holes) of greater mass. There are an estimated 1.9 million known Asteroids, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter.


Psyche Asteroid

LD
SD
HD



Vesta · Pallas · Hygiea · Euphrosyne · Interamnia
Davida · Herculina · Eunomia · Juno


Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Asteroid
Quinary Plane
A
… born within a solar nebula and mainly composed of mineral and rock, asteroids are planetary bodies that are smaller than dwarf planets. Known as minor planets, planetoids, or remnants of planetesimals, are largely found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids are an astronomical body, that directly orbits (or co-orbits as the prime dominant sibling of a planetary system) a parent nucleus with a singular (star or black hole) or multiple (stars or black holes) of greater mass. There are an estimated 1.9 million known Asteroids, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter.


Psyche Asteroid

LD
SD
HD



Vesta · Pallas · Hygiea · Euphrosyne · Interamnia
Davida · Herculina · Eunomia · Juno


Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Asteroid
Quinary Plane
A
… born within a solar nebula and mainly composed of mineral and rock, asteroids are planetary bodies that are smaller than dwarf planets. Known as minor planets, planetoids, or remnants of planetesimals, are largely found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids are an astronomical body, that directly orbits (or co-orbits as the prime dominant sibling of a planetary system) a parent nucleus with a singular (star or black hole) or multiple (stars or black holes) of greater mass. There are an estimated 1.9 million known Asteroids, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter.


Psyche Asteroid

LD
SD
HD



Vesta · Pallas · Hygiea · Euphrosyne · Interamnia
Davida · Herculina · Eunomia · Juno


Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Asteroid
Quinary Plane
A
… born within a solar nebula and mainly composed of mineral and rock, asteroids are planetary bodies that are smaller than dwarf planets. Known as minor planets, planetoids, or remnants of planetesimals, are largely found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids are an astronomical body, that directly orbits (or co-orbits as the prime dominant sibling of a planetary system) a parent nucleus with a singular (star or black hole) or multiple (stars or black holes) of greater mass. There are an estimated 1.9 million known Asteroids, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter.


Psyche Asteroid

LD
SD
HD



Vesta · Pallas · Hygiea · Euphrosyne · Interamnia
Davida · Herculina · Eunomia · Juno


Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Asteroid Belt
Quinary Plane
A
… with a mass equivalent to 4% of the Moon and located between the orbits of the planet Mars and Jupiter, the belt is home to the dwarf planet Ceres, and principal asteroids: Vesta, Pallas, Hygiea, and remaining asteroids are composed of carbonaceous (73%), silicate (17%), and metal-rich materials (10%).


Asteroid Belt

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Asteroid Belt
Quinary Plane
A
… with a mass equivalent to 4% of the Moon and located between the orbits of the planet Mars and Jupiter, the belt is home to the dwarf planet Ceres, and principal asteroids: Vesta, Pallas, Hygiea, and remaining asteroids are composed of carbonaceous (73%), silicate (17%), and metal-rich materials (10%).


Asteroid Belt

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Asteroid Belt
Quinary Plane
A
… with a mass equivalent to 4% of the Moon and located between the orbits of the planet Mars and Jupiter, the belt is home to the dwarf planet Ceres, and principal asteroids: Vesta, Pallas, Hygiea, and remaining asteroids are composed of carbonaceous (73%), silicate (17%), and metal-rich materials (10%).


Asteroid Belt

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Asteroid Belt
Quinary Plane
A
… with a mass equivalent to 4% of the Moon and located between the orbits of the planet Mars and Jupiter, the belt is home to the dwarf planet Ceres, and principal asteroids: Vesta, Pallas, Hygiea, and remaining asteroids are composed of carbonaceous (73%), silicate (17%), and metal-rich materials (10%).


Asteroid Belt

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Asteroid Belt
Quinary Plane
A
… with a mass equivalent to 4% of the Moon and located between the orbits of the planet Mars and Jupiter, the belt is home to the dwarf planet Ceres, and principal asteroids: Vesta, Pallas, Hygiea, and remaining asteroids are composed of carbonaceous (73%), silicate (17%), and metal-rich materials (10%).


Asteroid Belt

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Giuseppe Piazzi, 1801




Astrometry
Astronomy Term
A
… is the field of astronomy tasked with the measurement, position, and motion of heavenly bodies.

Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 190 BC




Astrometry
Astronomy Term
A
… is the field of astronomy tasked with the measurement, position, and motion of heavenly bodies.

Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 190 BC




Astrometry
Astronomy Term
A
… is the field of astronomy tasked with the measurement, position, and motion of heavenly bodies.

Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 190 BC




Astrometry
Astronomy Term
A
… is the field of astronomy tasked with the measurement, position, and motion of heavenly bodies.

Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 190 BC




Astrometry
Astronomy Term
A
… is the field of astronomy tasked with the measurement, position, and motion of heavenly bodies.

Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 190 BC




Astron
Quaternary Plane
A
… is a combination of gravitationally bound stellar or planetary bodies, surrounding a parent nucleus with one or many stars (Star System), black holes (Bothron System), or a combination thereof (Hybrid Star System).


Helios Solar System, 13 Planets

LD
SD
HD



Gliese 876, ST (4P) · HR 8832, ST (7P) · HD 40307, ST (6P)
Mu Arae, ST (4P) · Sgr A, BH (7ST)




Astron
Quaternary Plane
A
… is a combination of gravitationally bound stellar or planetary bodies, surrounding a parent nucleus with one or many stars (Star System), black holes (Bothron System), or a combination thereof (Hybrid Star System).


Helios Solar System, 13 Planets

LD
SD
HD



Gliese 876, ST (4P) · HR 8832, ST (7P) · HD 40307, ST (6P)
Mu Arae, ST (4P) · Sgr A, BH (7ST)




Astron
Quaternary Plane
A
… is a combination of gravitationally bound stellar or planetary bodies, surrounding a parent nucleus with one or many stars (Star System), black holes (Bothron System), or a combination thereof (Hybrid Star System).


Helios Solar System, 13 Planets

LD
SD
HD



Gliese 876, ST (4P) · HR 8832, ST (7P) · HD 40307, ST (6P)
Mu Arae, ST (4P) · Sgr A, BH (7ST)




Astron
Quaternary Plane
A
… is a combination of gravitationally bound stellar or planetary bodies, surrounding a parent nucleus with one or many stars (Star System), black holes (Bothron System), or a combination thereof (Hybrid Star System).


Helios Solar System, 13 Planets

LD
SD
HD



Gliese 876, ST (4P) · HR 8832, ST (7P) · HD 40307, ST (6P)
Mu Arae, ST (4P) · Sgr A, BH (7ST)




Astron
Quaternary Plane
A
… is a combination of gravitationally bound stellar or planetary bodies, surrounding a parent nucleus with one or many stars (Star System), black holes (Bothron System), or a combination thereof (Hybrid Star System).


Helios Solar System, 13 Planets

LD
SD
HD



Gliese 876, ST (4P) · HR 8832, ST (7P)
HD 40307, ST (6P)
Mu Arae, ST (4P) · Sgr A, BH (7ST)




Astronomical Unit
Fundamental Constant
A
1 AU = 149,597,870,700 m

Discovered by
Archimedes of Syracuse, 242 BC




Astronomical Unit
Fundamental Constant
A
1 AU = 149,597,870,700 m

Discovered by
Archimedes of Syracuse, 242 BC




Astronomical Unit
Fundamental Constant
A
1 AU = 149,597,870,700 m

Discovered by
Archimedes of Syracuse, 242 BC




Astronomical Unit
Fundamental Constant
A
1 AU = 149,597,870,700 m

Discovered by
Archimedes of Syracuse, 242 BC




Astronomical Unit
Fundamental Constant
A
1 AU = 149,597,870,700 m

Discovered by
Archimedes of Syracuse, 242 BC




Atmospheric Distortion
Astronomy Term
A
… as light from the heavens travel starlight travels through the atmosphere of a planet, air pockets behave like a lens, bending light in unpredictable ways including the twinkle of the stars.



Atmospheric Distortion
Astronomy Term
A
… as light from the heavens travel starlight travels through the atmosphere of a planet, air pockets behave like a lens, bending light in unpredictable ways including the twinkle of the stars.



Atmospheric Distortion
Astronomy Term
A
… as light from the heavens travel starlight travels through the atmosphere of a planet, air pockets behave like a lens, bending light in unpredictable ways including the twinkle of the stars.



Atmospheric Distortion
Astronomy Term
A
… as light from the heavens travel starlight travels through the atmosphere of a planet, air pockets behave like a lens, bending light in unpredictable ways including the twinkle of the stars.



Atmospheric Distortion
Astronomy Term
A
… as light from the heavens travel starlight travels through the atmosphere of a planet, air pockets behave like a lens, bending light in unpredictable ways including the twinkle of the stars.



Aurora
Astronomy Term
A
… a glow in the ionosphere of a planet is caused by the interaction between the planetary magnetic field and the solar wind (energized electrons and protons) affecting atoms visibly in the upper atmosphere. Auroras are common throughout the solar system and on Earth, they are known as the “Northern Lights” (Aurora Borealis) or “Southern Lights” (Aurora Australis).


Aurora Australis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora Borealis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora on Saturn

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Benjamin Franklin, 1749




Aurora
Astronomy Term
A
… a glow in the ionosphere of a planet is caused by the interaction between the planetary magnetic field and the solar wind (energized electrons and protons) affecting atoms visibly in the upper atmosphere. Auroras are common throughout the solar system and on Earth, they are known as the “Northern Lights” (Aurora Borealis) or “Southern Lights” (Aurora Australis).


Aurora Australis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora Borealis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora on Saturn

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Benjamin Franklin, 1749




Aurora
Astronomy Term
A
… a glow in the ionosphere of a planet is caused by the interaction between the planetary magnetic field and the solar wind (energized electrons and protons) affecting atoms visibly in the upper atmosphere. Auroras are common throughout the solar system and on Earth, they are known as the “Northern Lights” (Aurora Borealis) or “Southern Lights” (Aurora Australis).


Aurora Australis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora Borealis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora on Saturn

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Benjamin Franklin, 1749




Aurora
Astronomy Term
A
… a glow in the ionosphere of a planet is caused by the interaction between the planetary magnetic field and the solar wind (energized electrons and protons) affecting atoms visibly in the upper atmosphere. Auroras are common throughout the solar system and on Earth, they are known as the “Northern Lights” (Aurora Borealis) or “Southern Lights” (Aurora Australis).


Aurora Australis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora Borealis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora on Saturn

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Benjamin Franklin, 1749




Aurora
Astronomy Term
A
… a glow in the ionosphere of a planet is caused by the interaction between the planetary magnetic field and the solar wind (energized electrons and protons) affecting atoms visibly in the upper atmosphere. Auroras are common throughout the solar system and on Earth, they are known as the “Northern Lights” (Aurora Borealis) or “Southern Lights” (Aurora Australis).


Aurora Australis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora Borealis

LD
SD
HD




Aurora on Saturn

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Benjamin Franklin, 1749




Autoguider
Imaging Equipment
A
… an astrophotography tool that allow for long exposures by maintaining the prime telescope “field of view” by locking onto a targeted star and allowing the autoguider to communicate to the telescope mount and make relative and exacting corrections. Imaging of deep sky objects, require exposure times of many minutes to maintain clarity and held at the same position within the telescope’s field of view throughout the whole exposure.


Autoguider

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin, 1913




Autoguider
Imaging Equipment
A
… an astrophotography tool that allow for long exposures by maintaining the prime telescope “field of view” by locking onto a targeted star and allowing the autoguider to communicate to the telescope mount and make relative and exacting corrections. Imaging of deep sky objects, require exposure times of many minutes to maintain clarity and held at the same position within the telescope’s field of view throughout the whole exposure.


Autoguider

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin, 1913




Autoguider
Imaging Equipment
A
… an astrophotography tool that allow for long exposures by maintaining the prime telescope “field of view” by locking onto a targeted star and allowing the autoguider to communicate to the telescope mount and make relative and exacting corrections. Imaging of deep sky objects, require exposure times of many minutes to maintain clarity and held at the same position within the telescope’s field of view throughout the whole exposure.


Autoguider

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin, 1913




Autoguider
Imaging Equipment
A
… an astrophotography tool that allow for long exposures by maintaining the prime telescope “field of view” by locking onto a targeted star and allowing the autoguider to communicate to the telescope mount and make relative and exacting corrections. Imaging of deep sky objects, require exposure times of many minutes to maintain clarity and held at the same position within the telescope’s field of view throughout the whole exposure.


Autoguider

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin, 1913




Autoguider
Imaging Equipment
A
… an astrophotography tool that allow for long exposures by maintaining the prime telescope “field of view” by locking onto a targeted star and allowing the autoguider to communicate to the telescope mount and make relative and exacting corrections. Imaging of deep sky objects, require exposure times of many minutes to maintain clarity and held at the same position within the telescope’s field of view throughout the whole exposure.


Autoguider

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin, 1913




Azimuth
Astronomy Term
A
… the direction of a celestial object from the observer, starting North, measured clockwise in degrees around the horizon of the observer. North has an azimuth of 0º, East 90º, South 180º and West 270º.



Azimuth
Astronomy Term
A
… the direction of a celestial object from the observer, starting North, measured clockwise in degrees around the horizon of the observer. North has an azimuth of 0º, East 90º, South 180º and West 270º.



Azimuth
Astronomy Term
A
… the direction of a celestial object from the observer, starting North, measured clockwise in degrees around the horizon of the observer. North has an azimuth of 0º, East 90º, South 180º and West 270º.



Azimuth
Astronomy Term
A
… the direction of a celestial object from the observer, starting North, measured clockwise in degrees around the horizon of the observer. North has an azimuth of 0º, East 90º, South 180º and West 270º.



Azimuth
Astronomy Term
A
… the direction of a celestial object from the observer, starting North, measured clockwise in degrees around the horizon of the observer. North has an azimuth of 0º, East 90º, South 180º and West 270º.



B
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
B
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
B
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
B
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
B
Barlow Lens
Imaging Equipment
B
… a diverging lens which is used in series with other optics, with three elements for an achromatic correction and four elements for an apochromatic correction, which increases the effective focal length of an optical system, resulting in a magnified image.


Barlow Lens (Apochromatic)

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Peter Barlow, 1833




Barlow Lens
Imaging Equipment
B
… a diverging lens which is used in series with other optics, with three elements for an achromatic correction and four elements for an apochromatic correction, which increases the effective focal length of an optical system, resulting in a magnified image.


Barlow Lens (Apochromatic)

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Peter Barlow, 1833




Barlow Lens
Imaging Equipment
B
… a diverging lens which is used in series with other optics, with three elements for an achromatic correction and four elements for an apochromatic correction, which increases the effective focal length of an optical system, resulting in a magnified image.


Barlow Lens (Apochromatic)

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Peter Barlow, 1833




Barlow Lens
Imaging Equipment
B
… a diverging lens which is used in series with other optics, with three elements for an achromatic correction and four elements for an apochromatic correction, which increases the effective focal length of an optical system, resulting in a magnified image.


Barlow Lens (Apochromatic)

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Peter Barlow, 1833




Barlow Lens
Imaging Equipment
B
… a diverging lens which is used in series with other optics, with three elements for an achromatic correction and four elements for an apochromatic correction, which increases the effective focal length of an optical system, resulting in a magnified image.


Barlow Lens (Apochromatic)

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Peter Barlow, 1833




Barred Spiral Galaxy
Secondary Plane
B
… amounting to 10% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from (SBa), (SBb) & (SBc) with an elliptical core that has a bar of bright stars across the centre of the bulge. One or a multitude of galactic arms radiate from a disk, extending from this central bulge, surrounded by a halo.


M77 (NGC1068)

LD
SD
HD



NGC2787 · NGC4314 · NGC4921 · NGC3953
NGC1073 · NGC2903 · NGC5398


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Barred Spiral Galaxy
Secondary Plane
B
… amounting to 10% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from (SBa), (SBb) & (SBc) with an elliptical core that has a bar of bright stars across the centre of the bulge. One or a multitude of galactic arms radiate from a disk, extending from this central bulge, surrounded by a halo.


M77 (NGC1068)

LD
SD
HD



NGC2787 · NGC4314 · NGC4921 · NGC3953
NGC1073 · NGC2903 · NGC5398


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Barred Spiral Galaxy
Secondary Plane
B
… amounting to 10% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from (SBa), (SBb) & (SBc) with an elliptical core that has a bar of bright stars across the centre of the bulge. One or a multitude of galactic arms radiate from a disk, extending from this central bulge, surrounded by a halo.


M77 (NGC1068)

LD
SD
HD



NGC2787 · NGC4314 · NGC4921 · NGC3953
NGC1073 · NGC2903 · NGC5398


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Barred Spiral Galaxy
Secondary Plane
B
… amounting to 10% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from (SBa), (SBb) & (SBc) with an elliptical core that has a bar of bright stars across the centre of the bulge. One or a multitude of galactic arms radiate from a disk, extending from this central bulge, surrounded by a halo.


M77 (NGC1068)

LD
SD
HD



NGC2787 · NGC4314 · NGC4921 · NGC3953
NGC1073 · NGC2903 · NGC5398


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Barred Spiral Galaxy
Secondary Plane
B
… amounting to 10% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from (SBa), (SBb) & (SBc) with an elliptical core that has a bar of bright stars across the centre of the bulge. One or a multitude of galactic arms radiate from a disk, extending from this central bulge, surrounded by a halo.


M77 (NGC1068)

LD
SD
HD



NGC2787 · NGC4314 · NGC4921 · NGC3953
NGC1073 · NGC2903 · NGC5398


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Baseline Array
Imaging Term
B
… a reference to number of imaging devices, that are combined and calibrated to work together as a single instrument, the larger the baseline, the greater the resolving power. This aperture synthesis denotes a form of interferometry that combines signals from a collection of imaging sources to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.


Very Large Array, 675M USA, New Mexico

LD
SD
HD





Baseline Array
Imaging Term
B
… a reference to number of imaging devices, that are combined and calibrated to work together as a single instrument, the larger the baseline, the greater the resolving power. This aperture synthesis denotes a form of interferometry that combines signals from a collection of imaging sources to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.


Very Large Array, 675M USA, New Mexico

LD
SD
HD





Baseline Array
Imaging Term
B
… a reference to number of imaging devices, that are combined and calibrated to work together as a single instrument, the larger the baseline, the greater the resolving power. This aperture synthesis denotes a form of interferometry that combines signals from a collection of imaging sources to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.


Very Large Array, 675M USA, New Mexico

LD
SD
HD





Baseline Array
Imaging Term
B
… a reference to number of imaging devices, that are combined and calibrated to work together as a single instrument, the larger the baseline, the greater the resolving power. This aperture synthesis denotes a form of interferometry that combines signals from a collection of imaging sources to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.


Very Large Array, 675M USA, New Mexico

LD
SD
HD





Baseline Array
Imaging Term
B
… a reference to number of imaging devices, that are combined and calibrated to work together as a single instrument, the larger the baseline, the greater the resolving power. This aperture synthesis denotes a form of interferometry that combines signals from a collection of imaging sources to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.


Very Large Array, 675M USA, New Mexico

LD
SD
HD





Big Bang
Astronomy Term
B
… an event, predicted by theory to depict the universe as forming from a single point in space, 13.7 billion years ago. Measurements of background radiation by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the observed expansion of space, confirm this cosmological model for the universe.


WMAP data of the Background Cosmic Radiation

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître, 1931




Big Bang
Astronomy Term
B
… an event, predicted by theory to depict the universe as forming from a single point in space, 13.7 billion years ago. Measurements of background radiation by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the observed expansion of space, confirm this cosmological model for the universe.


WMAP data of the Background Cosmic Radiation

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître, 1931




Big Bang
Astronomy Term
B
… an event, predicted by theory to depict the universe as forming from a single point in space, 13.7 billion years ago. Measurements of background radiation by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the observed expansion of space, confirm this cosmological model for the universe.


WMAP data of the Background Cosmic Radiation

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître, 1931




Big Bang
Astronomy Term
B
… an event, predicted by theory to depict the universe as forming from a single point in space, 13.7 billion years ago. Measurements of background radiation by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the observed expansion of space, confirm this cosmological model for the universe.


WMAP data of the Background Cosmic Radiation

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître, 1931




Big Bang
Astronomy Term
B
… an event, predicted by theory to depict the universe as forming from a single point in space, 13.7 billion years ago. Measurements of background radiation by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the observed expansion of space, confirm this cosmological model for the universe.


WMAP data of the Background Cosmic Radiation

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître, 1931




Binary Stars
Quaternary Plane
B
… a system of two stars, bound together by their mutual gravitational attraction, and revolve around a common centre of gravity (barycentre).


Binary Stars (Epsilon & Lyrae)

LD
SD
HD



ALPHA CENTAURI (RIGEL KENTAURUS) · BETA CENTAURI (HADAR)


Discovered by
Friedrich William Herschel, 1802




Binary Stars
Quaternary Plane
B
… a system of two stars, bound together by their mutual gravitational attraction, and revolve around a common centre of gravity (barycentre).


Binary Stars (Epsilon & Lyrae)

LD
SD
HD



ALPHA CENTAURI (RIGEL KENTAURUS) · BETA CENTAURI (HADAR)


Discovered by
Friedrich William Herschel, 1802




Binary Stars
Quaternary Plane
B
… a system of two stars, bound together by their mutual gravitational attraction, and revolve around a common centre of gravity (barycentre).


Binary Stars (Epsilon & Lyrae)

LD
SD
HD



ALPHA CENTAURI (RIGEL KENTAURUS) · BETA CENTAURI (HADAR)


Discovered by
Friedrich William Herschel, 1802




Binary Stars
Quaternary Plane
B
… a system of two stars, bound together by their mutual gravitational attraction, and revolve around a common centre of gravity (barycentre).


Binary Stars (Epsilon & Lyrae)

LD
SD
HD



ALPHA CENTAURI (RIGEL KENTAURUS)
BETA CENTAURI (HADAR)


Discovered by
Friedrich William Herschel, 1802




Binary Stars
Quaternary Plane
B
… a system of two stars, bound together by their mutual gravitational attraction, and revolve around a common centre of gravity (barycentre).


Binary Stars (Epsilon & Lyrae)

LD
SD
HD



ALPHA CENTAURI (RIGEL KENTAURUS)
BETA CENTAURI (HADAR)


Discovered by
Friedrich William Herschel, 1802




Black Body
Fundamental Term
B
… is a property of a physical body that absorbs incidental electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1860




Black Body
Fundamental Term
B
… is a property of a physical body that absorbs incidental electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1860




Black Body
Fundamental Term
B
… is a property of a physical body that absorbs incidental electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1860




Black Body
Fundamental Term
B
… is a property of a physical body that absorbs incidental electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1860




Black Body
Fundamental Term
B
… is a property of a physical body that absorbs incidental electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

Discovered by
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1860




Black Hole
Quaternary Plane
B
… occupies a region of spacetime whereby, an objective combined mass cannot withstand the pressure of gravitational effects of that system, converting mass to energy and is retained by an event horizon. This barrier forbids any particle or radiation to escape from within and will only emit radiation (Hawking) that is the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass.


Neutron stars at the end of their life cycle may gravitationally collapse to become a Black Hole, and may grow by absorbing other stars or merging with other black holes. On 11 February 2016, gravity waves from a binary black hole merger was detected and on 15 June 2016, a second gravitational wave event was detected from colliding black holes.


The existence and mass of a black hole can be determined through its interaction with other matter and light, as matter falling into a black hole can form an external accretion disk heated by friction and form some of the brightest objects in the universe. The centre of our own Milky Way Galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole equivalent to 4.3 million solar masses.


SGR A Black Hole

LD
SD
HD



AP Lib · Arp 220 · Fornax A · IC 1459 · Mrk 180
NGC 1277 · NGC 4889 · OJ 287


Discovered by
John Mitchell, 1784




Black Hole
Quaternary Plane
B
… occupies a region of spacetime whereby, an objective combined mass cannot withstand the pressure of gravitational effects of that system, converting mass to energy and is retained by an event horizon. This barrier forbids any particle or radiation to escape from within and will only emit radiation (Hawking) that is the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass.


Neutron stars at the end of their life cycle may gravitationally collapse to become a Black Hole, and may grow by absorbing other stars or merging with other black holes. On 11 February 2016, gravity waves from a binary black hole merger was detected and on 15 June 2016, a second gravitational wave event was detected from colliding black holes.


The existence and mass of a black hole can be determined through its interaction with other matter and light, as matter falling into a black hole can form an external accretion disk heated by friction and form some of the brightest objects in the universe. The centre of our own Milky Way Galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole equivalent to 4.3 million solar masses.


SGR A Black Hole

LD
SD
HD



AP Lib · Arp 220 · Fornax A · IC 1459 · Mrk 180
NGC 1277 · NGC 4889 · OJ 287


Discovered by
John Mitchell, 1784




Black Hole
Quaternary Plane
B
… occupies a region of spacetime whereby, an objective combined mass cannot withstand the pressure of gravitational effects of that system, converting mass to energy and is retained by an event horizon. This barrier forbids any particle or radiation to escape from within and will only emit radiation (Hawking) that is the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass.


Neutron stars at the end of their life cycle may gravitationally collapse to become a Black Hole, and may grow by absorbing other stars or merging with other black holes. On 11 February 2016, gravity waves from a binary black hole merger was detected and on 15 June 2016, a second gravitational wave event was detected from colliding black holes.


The existence and mass of a black hole can be determined through its interaction with other matter and light, as matter falling into a black hole can form an external accretion disk heated by friction and form some of the brightest objects in the universe. The centre of our own Milky Way Galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole equivalent to 4.3 million solar masses.


SGR A Black Hole

LD
SD
HD



AP Lib · Arp 220 · Fornax A · IC 1459 · Mrk 180
NGC 1277 · NGC 4889 · OJ 287


Discovered by
John Mitchell, 1784




Black Hole
Quaternary Plane
B
… occupies a region of spacetime whereby, an objective combined mass cannot withstand the pressure of gravitational effects of that system, converting mass to energy and is retained by an event horizon. This barrier forbids any particle or radiation to escape from within and will only emit radiation (Hawking) that is the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass.


Neutron stars at the end of their life cycle may gravitationally collapse to become a Black Hole, and may grow by absorbing other stars or merging with other black holes. On 11 February 2016, gravity waves from a binary black hole merger was detected and on 15 June 2016, a second gravitational wave event was detected from colliding black holes.


The existence and mass of a black hole can be determined through its interaction with other matter and light, as matter falling into a black hole can form an external accretion disk heated by friction and form some of the brightest objects in the universe. The centre of our own Milky Way Galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole equivalent to 4.3 million solar masses.


SGR A Black Hole

LD
SD
HD



AP Lib · Arp 220 · Fornax A · IC 1459 · Mrk 180
NGC 1277 · NGC 4889 · OJ 287


Discovered by
John Mitchell, 1784




Black Hole
Quaternary Plane
B
… occupies a region of spacetime whereby, an objective combined mass cannot withstand the pressure of gravitational effects of that system, converting mass to energy and is retained by an event horizon. This barrier forbids any particle or radiation to escape from within and will only emit radiation (Hawking) that is the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass.


Neutron stars at the end of their life cycle may gravitationally collapse to become a Black Hole, and may grow by absorbing other stars or merging with other black holes. On 11 February 2016, gravity waves from a binary black hole merger was detected and on 15 June 2016, a second gravitational wave event was detected from colliding black holes.


The existence and mass of a black hole can be determined through its interaction with other matter and light, as matter falling into a black hole can form an external accretion disk heated by friction and form some of the brightest objects in the universe. The centre of our own Milky Way Galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole equivalent to 4.3 million solar masses.


SGR A Black Hole

LD
SD
HD



AP Lib · Arp 220 · Fornax A · IC 1459 · Mrk 180
NGC 1277 · NGC 4889 · OJ 287


Discovered by
John Mitchell, 1784




Blazar
Secondary Plane
B
… is a compact quasar (quasi-stellar radio source) with a supermassive black hole at the center of an active, giant elliptical galaxy. They are among the most energetic phenomena in the universe and represent optically violent variable (OVV) quasars and BL Lac objects.


BL Lacertae Blazar

LD
SD
HD



3C 273 · PKS 2155-304 · Markarian 421
Markarian 501 · S5 0014+81


Discovered by
Peter Albert Strittmatter, 1972




Blazar
Secondary Plane
B
… is a compact quasar (quasi-stellar radio source) with a supermassive black hole at the center of an active, giant elliptical galaxy. They are among the most energetic phenomena in the universe and represent optically violent variable (OVV) quasars and BL Lac objects.


BL Lacertae Blazar

LD
SD
HD



3C 273 · PKS 2155-304 · Markarian 421
Markarian 501 · S5 0014+81


Discovered by
Peter Albert Strittmatter, 1972




Blazar
Secondary Plane
B
… is a compact quasar (quasi-stellar radio source) with a supermassive black hole at the center of an active, giant elliptical galaxy. They are among the most energetic phenomena in the universe and represent optically violent variable (OVV) quasars and BL Lac objects.


BL Lacertae Blazar

LD
SD
HD



3C 273 · PKS 2155-304 · Markarian 421
Markarian 501 · S5 0014+81


Discovered by
Peter Albert Strittmatter, 1972




Blazar
Secondary Plane
B
… is a compact quasar (quasi-stellar radio source) with a supermassive black hole at the center of an active, giant elliptical galaxy. They are among the most energetic phenomena in the universe and represent optically violent variable (OVV) quasars and BL Lac objects.


BL Lacertae Blazar

LD
SD
HD



3C 273 · PKS 2155-304 · Markarian 421
Markarian 501 · S5 0014+81


Discovered by
Peter Albert Strittmatter, 1972




Blazar
Secondary Plane
B
… is a compact quasar (quasi-stellar radio source) with a supermassive black hole at the center of an active, giant elliptical galaxy. They are among the most energetic phenomena in the universe and represent optically violent variable (OVV) quasars and BL Lac objects.


BL Lacertae Blazar

LD
SD
HD



3C 273 · PKS 2155-304 · Markarian 421
Markarian 501 · S5 0014+81


Discovered by
Peter Albert Strittmatter, 1972




Blink Comparator
Imaging Equipment
B
… a legacy viewing device for finding differences between two photographs of the night sky by rapidly viewing alternating photographs (blinking) taken of the same area of the sky and at different times. In photographs taken days apart, planets, asteroids and comets would stand out, as they would appear to be jumping between two positions, whilst all other fixed stars stood still.


Images taken at longer intervals detect stars with proper motion, variable stars, or to distinguish binary from optical double stars (The dwarf planet Pluto was found this way). Digital imaging, storage and processing now replaces these methods as image differencing algorithms detect moving objects more effectively.


Blink Comparator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Carl Pulfrich, 1904




Blink Comparator
Imaging Equipment
B
… a legacy viewing device for finding differences between two photographs of the night sky by rapidly viewing alternating photographs (blinking) taken of the same area of the sky and at different times. In photographs taken days apart, planets, asteroids and comets would stand out, as they would appear to be jumping between two positions, whilst all other fixed stars stood still.


Images taken at longer intervals detect stars with proper motion, variable stars, or to distinguish binary from optical double stars (The dwarf planet Pluto was found this way). Digital imaging, storage and processing now replaces these methods as image differencing algorithms detect moving objects more effectively.


Blink Comparator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Carl Pulfrich, 1904




Blink Comparator
Imaging Equipment
B
… a legacy viewing device for finding differences between two photographs of the night sky by rapidly viewing alternating photographs (blinking) taken of the same area of the sky and at different times. In photographs taken days apart, planets, asteroids and comets would stand out, as they would appear to be jumping between two positions, whilst all other fixed stars stood still.


Images taken at longer intervals detect stars with proper motion, variable stars, or to distinguish binary from optical double stars (The dwarf planet Pluto was found this way). Digital imaging, storage and processing now replaces these methods as image differencing algorithms detect moving objects more effectively.


Blink Comparator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Carl Pulfrich, 1904




Blink Comparator
Imaging Equipment
B
… a legacy viewing device for finding differences between two photographs of the night sky by rapidly viewing alternating photographs (blinking) taken of the same area of the sky and at different times. In photographs taken days apart, planets, asteroids and comets would stand out, as they would appear to be jumping between two positions, whilst all other fixed stars stood still.


Images taken at longer intervals detect stars with proper motion, variable stars, or to distinguish binary from optical double stars (The dwarf planet Pluto was found this way). Digital imaging, storage and processing now replaces these methods as image differencing algorithms detect moving objects more effectively.


Blink Comparator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Carl Pulfrich, 1904




Blink Comparator
Imaging Equipment
B
… a legacy viewing device for finding differences between two photographs of the night sky by rapidly viewing alternating photographs (blinking) taken of the same area of the sky and at different times. In photographs taken days apart, planets, asteroids and comets would stand out, as they would appear to be jumping between two positions, whilst all other fixed stars stood still.


Images taken at longer intervals detect stars with proper motion, variable stars, or to distinguish binary from optical double stars (The dwarf planet Pluto was found this way). Digital imaging, storage and processing now replaces these methods as image differencing algorithms detect moving objects more effectively.


Blink Comparator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Carl Pulfrich, 1904




Blueshift
Fundamental Term
B
… any decrease in wavelength, with an increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave, shifting from the red, to the blue end of the spectrum. Doppler blueshift is caused by movement of a source towards the observer.

Discovered by
Christian Andreas Doppler, 1842




Blueshift
Fundamental Term
B
… any decrease in wavelength, with an increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave, shifting from the red, to the blue end of the spectrum. Doppler blueshift is caused by movement of a source towards the observer.

Discovered by
Christian Andreas Doppler, 1842




Blueshift
Fundamental Term
B
… any decrease in wavelength, with an increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave, shifting from the red, to the blue end of the spectrum. Doppler blueshift is caused by movement of a source towards the observer.

Discovered by
Christian Andreas Doppler, 1842




Blueshift
Fundamental Term
B
… any decrease in wavelength, with an increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave, shifting from the red, to the blue end of the spectrum. Doppler blueshift is caused by movement of a source towards the observer.

Discovered by
Christian Andreas Doppler, 1842




Blueshift
Fundamental Term
B
… any decrease in wavelength, with an increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave, shifting from the red, to the blue end of the spectrum. Doppler blueshift is caused by movement of a source towards the observer.

Discovered by
Christian Andreas Doppler, 1842




Bok Globule
Secondary Plane
B
… are isolated small dark nebulae that are interstellar clouds of very cold gas. They are found in H II regions, contained within a light year across and are composed of molecular hydrogen, carbon oxides, helium, and silicate dust. Stars are born within Bok Globules and contain Herbig–Haro Objects and outflows of molecular gas, which commonly result in the formation of multiple star systems.


Thackeray Bok Globules (IC2944)

LD
SD
HD



NGC281 · NGC3199 · IC2948


Discovered by
Bartholomeus Jan “Bart” Bok, 1947




Bok Globule
Secondary Plane
B
… are isolated small dark nebulae that are interstellar clouds of very cold gas. They are found in H II regions, contained within a light year across and are composed of molecular hydrogen, carbon oxides, helium, and silicate dust. Stars are born within Bok Globules and contain Herbig–Haro Objects and outflows of molecular gas, which commonly result in the formation of multiple star systems.


Thackeray Bok Globules (IC2944)

LD
SD
HD



NGC281 · NGC3199 · IC2948


Discovered by
Bartholomeus Jan “Bart” Bok, 1947




Bok Globule
Secondary Plane
B
… are isolated small dark nebulae that are interstellar clouds of very cold gas. They are found in H II regions, contained within a light year across and are composed of molecular hydrogen, carbon oxides, helium, and silicate dust. Stars are born within Bok Globules and contain Herbig–Haro Objects and outflows of molecular gas, which commonly result in the formation of multiple star systems.


Thackeray Bok Globules (IC2944)

LD
SD
HD



NGC281 · NGC3199 · IC2948


Discovered by
Bartholomeus Jan “Bart” Bok, 1947




Bok Globule
Secondary Plane
B
… are isolated small dark nebulae that are interstellar clouds of very cold gas. They are found in H II regions, contained within a light year across and are composed of molecular hydrogen, carbon oxides, helium, and silicate dust. Stars are born within Bok Globules and contain Herbig–Haro Objects and outflows of molecular gas, which commonly result in the formation of multiple star systems.


Thackeray Bok Globules (IC2944)

LD
SD
HD



NGC281 · NGC3199 · IC2948


Discovered by
Bartholomeus Jan “Bart” Bok, 1947




Bok Globule
Secondary Plane
B
… are isolated small dark nebulae that are interstellar clouds of very cold gas. They are found in H II regions, contained within a light year across and are composed of molecular hydrogen, carbon oxides, helium, and silicate dust. Stars are born within Bok Globules and contain Herbig–Haro Objects and outflows of molecular gas, which commonly result in the formation of multiple star systems.


Thackeray Bok Globules (IC2944)

LD
SD
HD



NGC281 · NGC3199 · IC2948


Discovered by
Bartholomeus Jan “Bart” Bok, 1947




Bolide
Quinary Plane
B
… is an extremely bright meteor, with an apparent magnitude brighter than −14, whereas a super-bolide has an apparent magnitude brighter than −17.


Geminid Meteor Fireball

LD
SD
HD



Sutter’s Mill Meteorite · Sulawesi Super-Bolide · Thailand Bolide




Bolide
Quinary Plane
B
… is an extremely bright meteor, with an apparent magnitude brighter than −14, whereas a super-bolide has an apparent magnitude brighter than −17.


Geminid Meteor Fireball

LD
SD
HD



Sutter’s Mill Meteorite · Sulawesi Super-Bolide · Thailand Bolide




Bolide
Quinary Plane
B
… is an extremely bright meteor, with an apparent magnitude brighter than −14, whereas a super-bolide has an apparent magnitude brighter than −17.


Geminid Meteor Fireball

LD
SD
HD



Sutter’s Mill Meteorite · Sulawesi Super-Bolide · Thailand Bolide




Bolide
Quinary Plane
B
… is an extremely bright meteor, with an apparent magnitude brighter than −14, whereas a super-bolide has an apparent magnitude brighter than −17.


Geminid Meteor Fireball

LD
SD
HD



Sutter’s Mill Meteorite · Sulawesi Super-Bolide · Thailand Bolide




Bolide
Quinary Plane
B
… is an extremely bright meteor, with an apparent magnitude brighter than −14, whereas a super-bolide has an apparent magnitude brighter than −17.


Geminid Meteor Fireball

LD
SD
HD



Sutter’s Mill Meteorite · Sulawesi Super-Bolide · Thailand Bolide




Bose-Einstein Condensate
Fundamental Term
B
… is a state of matter for a dilute gas of bosons that are cooled to temperatures that are very close to absolute zero (0 K, −273.15 °C). As a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, they act as a superatom and display a quantum phenomenon of wavefunction interference.

Discovered by
Satyendra Nath Bose, 1924




Bose-Einstein Condensate
Fundamental Term
B
… is a state of matter for a dilute gas of bosons that are cooled to temperatures that are very close to absolute zero (0 K, −273.15 °C). As a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, they act as a superatom and display a quantum phenomenon of wavefunction interference.

Discovered by
Satyendra Nath Bose, 1924




Bose-Einstein Condensate
Fundamental Term
B
… is a state of matter for a dilute gas of bosons that are cooled to temperatures that are very close to absolute zero (0 K, −273.15 °C). As a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, they act as a superatom and display a quantum phenomenon of wavefunction interference.

Discovered by
Satyendra Nath Bose, 1924




Bose-Einstein Condensate
Fundamental Term
B
… is a state of matter for a dilute gas of bosons that are cooled to temperatures that are very close to absolute zero (0 K, −273.15 °C). As a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, they act as a superatom and display a quantum phenomenon of wavefunction interference.

Discovered by
Satyendra Nath Bose, 1924




Bose-Einstein Condensate
Fundamental Term
B
… is a state of matter for a dilute gas of bosons that are cooled to temperatures that are very close to absolute zero (0 K, −273.15 °C). As a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, they act as a superatom and display a quantum phenomenon of wavefunction interference.

Discovered by
Satyendra Nath Bose, 1924




Bow Shock
Astronomy Term
B
… is the outer boundary of the magnetic field of a planetary (magnetospheric) or stellar (astrosphere) body, where the supersonic flow of the solar wind is slowed to subsonic speed by this magnetic field interaction.

Discovered by
Thomas Gold, 1959




Bow Shock
Astronomy Term
B
… is the outer boundary of the magnetic field of a planetary (magnetospheric) or stellar (astrosphere) body, where the supersonic flow of the solar wind is slowed to subsonic speed by this magnetic field interaction.

Discovered by
Thomas Gold, 1959




Bow Shock
Astronomy Term
B
… is the outer boundary of the magnetic field of a planetary (magnetospheric) or stellar (astrosphere) body, where the supersonic flow of the solar wind is slowed to subsonic speed by this magnetic field interaction.

Discovered by
Thomas Gold, 1959




Bow Shock
Astronomy Term
B
… is the outer boundary of the magnetic field of a planetary (magnetospheric) or stellar (astrosphere) body, where the supersonic flow of the solar wind is slowed to subsonic speed by this magnetic field interaction.

Discovered by
Thomas Gold, 1959




Bow Shock
Astronomy Term
B
… is the outer boundary of the magnetic field of a planetary (magnetospheric) or stellar (astrosphere) body, where the supersonic flow of the solar wind is slowed to subsonic speed by this magnetic field interaction.

Discovered by
Thomas Gold, 1959




Breccia
Geology Term
B
… is rock composed of broken mineral fragments, cemented together by a fine-grained matrix and is differentiated by sedimentary, tectonic, igneous, impact and hydrothermal classifications.



Breccia
Geology Term
B
… is rock composed of broken mineral fragments, cemented together by a fine-grained matrix and is differentiated by sedimentary, tectonic, igneous, impact and hydrothermal classifications.



Breccia
Geology Term
B
… is rock composed of broken mineral fragments, cemented together by a fine-grained matrix and is differentiated by sedimentary, tectonic, igneous, impact and hydrothermal classifications.



Breccia
Geology Term
B
… is rock composed of broken mineral fragments, cemented together by a fine-grained matrix and is differentiated by sedimentary, tectonic, igneous, impact and hydrothermal classifications.



Breccia
Geology Term
B
… is rock composed of broken mineral fragments, cemented together by a fine-grained matrix and is differentiated by sedimentary, tectonic, igneous, impact and hydrothermal classifications.



Brown Dwarf
Quaternary Plane
B
… a mass of between 13 to 80 Jupiter masses and are fully convective with no layer differentiation by depth or sustain nuclear fusion, however, they may fuse deuterium and fuse lithium. The spectral classes are designated M, L, T, Y and are not very luminous at visible wavelengths and would appear magenta to the human eye.


PIA 20583 Brown Dwarf

LD
SD
HD



Teide 1 · Gliese 229B · HW Virginis · 2M1207
ULAS J0034-00 · Cha Halpha 1


Discovered by
Shiv S Kumar, 1962




Brown Dwarf
Quaternary Plane
B
… a mass of between 13 to 80 Jupiter masses and are fully convective with no layer differentiation by depth or sustain nuclear fusion, however, they may fuse deuterium and fuse lithium. The spectral classes are designated M, L, T, Y and are not very luminous at visible wavelengths and would appear magenta to the human eye.


PIA 20583 Brown Dwarf

LD
SD
HD



Teide 1 · Gliese 229B · HW Virginis · 2M1207
ULAS J0034-00 · Cha Halpha 1


Discovered by
Shiv S Kumar, 1962




Brown Dwarf
Quaternary Plane
B
… a mass of between 13 to 80 Jupiter masses and are fully convective with no layer differentiation by depth or sustain nuclear fusion, however, they may fuse deuterium and fuse lithium. The spectral classes are designated M, L, T, Y and are not very luminous at visible wavelengths and would appear magenta to the human eye.


PIA 20583 Brown Dwarf

LD
SD
HD



Teide 1 · Gliese 229B · HW Virginis · 2M1207
ULAS J0034-00 · Cha Halpha 1


Discovered by
Shiv S Kumar, 1962




Brown Dwarf
Quaternary Plane
B
… a mass of between 13 to 80 Jupiter masses and are fully convective with no layer differentiation by depth or sustain nuclear fusion, however, they may fuse deuterium and fuse lithium. The spectral classes are designated M, L, T, Y and are not very luminous at visible wavelengths and would appear magenta to the human eye.


PIA 20583 Brown Dwarf

LD
SD
HD



Teide 1 · Gliese 229B · HW Virginis · 2M1207
ULAS J0034-00 · Cha Halpha 1


Discovered by
Shiv S Kumar, 1962




Brown Dwarf
Quaternary Plane
B
… a mass of between 13 to 80 Jupiter masses and are fully convective with no layer differentiation by depth or sustain nuclear fusion, however, they may fuse deuterium and fuse lithium. The spectral classes are designated M, L, T, Y and are not very luminous at visible wavelengths and would appear magenta to the human eye.


PIA 20583 Brown Dwarf

LD
SD
HD



Teide 1 · Gliese 229B · HW Virginis · 2M1207
ULAS J0034-00 · Cha Halpha 1


Discovered by
Shiv S Kumar, 1962




Butte
Geology Term
B
… an isolated hill with steep sides and has a top that is narrower than its height, whereas an opposing “mesa”, has a top that is wider than its height.



Butte
Geology Term
B
… an isolated hill with steep sides and has a top that is narrower than its height, whereas an opposing “mesa”, has a top that is wider than its height.



Butte
Geology Term
B
… an isolated hill with steep sides and has a top that is narrower than its height, whereas an opposing “mesa”, has a top that is wider than its height.



Butte
Geology Term
B
… an isolated hill with steep sides and has a top that is narrower than its height, whereas an opposing “mesa”, has a top that is wider than its height.



Butte
Geology Term
B
… an isolated hill with steep sides and has a top that is narrower than its height, whereas an opposing “mesa”, has a top that is wider than its height.



C
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
C
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
C
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
C
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
C
Caldera
Geography Term
C
… a large depression (cauldron-like sinkhole) of up to 100 kilometres in diameter and is formed through subsidence, rather than an explosion or impact and by an evacuated magma chamber which cannot support the ground above and collapses, resembling a crater.


Caldera at Yellowstone National Park, USA

LD
SD
HD




Caldera at Olympus Mons, Mars

LD
SD
HD





Caldera
Geography Term
C
… a large depression (cauldron-like sinkhole) of up to 100 kilometres in diameter and is formed through subsidence, rather than an explosion or impact and by an evacuated magma chamber which cannot support the ground above and collapses, resembling a crater.


Caldera at Yellowstone National Park, USA

LD
SD
HD




Caldera at Olympus Mons, Mars

LD
SD
HD





Caldera
Geography Term
C
… a large depression (cauldron-like sinkhole) of up to 100 kilometres in diameter and is formed through subsidence, rather than an explosion or impact and by an evacuated magma chamber which cannot support the ground above and collapses, resembling a crater.


Caldera at Yellowstone National Park, USA

LD
SD
HD




Caldera at Olympus Mons, Mars

LD
SD
HD





Caldera
Geography Term
C
… a large depression (cauldron-like sinkhole) of up to 100 kilometres in diameter and is formed through subsidence, rather than an explosion or impact and by an evacuated magma chamber which cannot support the ground above and collapses, resembling a crater.


Caldera at Yellowstone National Park, USA

LD
SD
HD




Caldera at Olympus Mons, Mars

LD
SD
HD





Caldera
Geography Term
C
… a large depression (cauldron-like sinkhole) of up to 100 kilometres in diameter and is formed through subsidence, rather than an explosion or impact and by an evacuated magma chamber which cannot support the ground above and collapses, resembling a crater.


Caldera at Yellowstone NP, USA

LD
SD
HD




Caldera at Olympus Mons, Mars

LD
SD
HD





Carbon Star
Quaternary Plane
C
… a red dwarf, giant and supergiant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen, forming carbon monoxide, which leads to the consumption of all oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving a ruby red appearance.


T Leporis, Carbon Star

LD
SD
HD



R Leporis · IRC +10216 · La Superba


Discovered by
Pietro Angelo Secchi, 1868




Carbon Star
Quaternary Plane
C
… a red dwarf, giant and supergiant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen, forming carbon monoxide, which leads to the consumption of all oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving a ruby red appearance.


T Leporis, Carbon Star

LD
SD
HD



R Leporis · IRC +10216 · La Superba


Discovered by
Pietro Angelo Secchi, 1868




Carbon Star
Quaternary Plane
C
… a red dwarf, giant and supergiant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen, forming carbon monoxide, which leads to the consumption of all oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving a ruby red appearance.


T Leporis, Carbon Star

LD
SD
HD



R Leporis · IRC +10216 · La Superba


Discovered by
Pietro Angelo Secchi, 1868




Carbon Star
Quaternary Plane
C
… a red dwarf, giant and supergiant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen, forming carbon monoxide, which leads to the consumption of all oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving a ruby red appearance.


T Leporis, Carbon Star

LD
SD
HD



R Leporis · IRC +10216 · La Superba


Discovered by
Pietro Angelo Secchi, 1868




Carbon Star
Quaternary Plane
C
… a red dwarf, giant and supergiant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen, forming carbon monoxide, which leads to the consumption of all oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving a ruby red appearance.


T Leporis, Carbon Star

LD
SD
HD



R Leporis · IRC +10216 · La Superba


Discovered by
Pietro Angelo Secchi, 1868




Carbonaceous Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… classification of meteorite with embedded pebble-sized granules containing quantities of organic carbon-rich matter.


NWA5958, CM Carbonaceous Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



NWA801, CR2 · Murchison, CM2 · NWA10494, LL3




Carbonaceous Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… classification of meteorite with embedded pebble-sized granules containing quantities of organic carbon-rich matter.


NWA5958, CM Carbonaceous Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



NWA801, CR2 · Murchison, CM2 · NWA10494, LL3




Carbonaceous Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… classification of meteorite with embedded pebble-sized granules containing quantities of organic carbon-rich matter.


NWA5958, CM Carbonaceous Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



NWA801, CR2 · Murchison, CM2 · NWA10494, LL3




Carbonaceous Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… classification of meteorite with embedded pebble-sized granules containing quantities of organic carbon-rich matter.


NWA5958, CM Carbonaceous Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



NWA801, CR2 · Murchison, CM2 · NWA10494, LL3




Carbonaceous Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… classification of meteorite with embedded pebble-sized granules containing quantities of organic carbon-rich matter.


NWA5958, CM Carbonaceous Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



NWA801, CR2 · Murchison, CM2 · NWA10494, LL3




Carbonate
Geology Term
C
… refers to both carbonate minerals and rock which are dominated by carbonate ions. The most common carbonate minerals are calcite or calcium carbonate, which are the major component of limestone, mollusc shells and coral skeletons, iron carbonate, dolomite, sodium carbonate, siderite, and potassium carbonate.



Carbonate
Geology Term
C
… refers to both carbonate minerals and rock which are dominated by carbonate ions. The most common carbonate minerals are calcite or calcium carbonate, which are the major component of limestone, mollusc shells and coral skeletons, iron carbonate, dolomite, sodium carbonate, siderite, and potassium carbonate.



Carbonate
Geology Term
C
… refers to both carbonate minerals and rock which are dominated by carbonate ions. The most common carbonate minerals are calcite or calcium carbonate, which are the major component of limestone, mollusc shells and coral skeletons, iron carbonate, dolomite, sodium carbonate, siderite, and potassium carbonate.



Carbonate
Geology Term
C
… refers to both carbonate minerals and rock which are dominated by carbonate ions. The most common carbonate minerals are calcite or calcium carbonate, which are the major component of limestone, mollusc shells and coral skeletons, iron carbonate, dolomite, sodium carbonate, siderite, and potassium carbonate.



Carbonate
Geology Term
C
… refers to both carbonate minerals and rock which are dominated by carbonate ions. The most common carbonate minerals are calcite or calcium carbonate, which are the major component of limestone, mollusc shells and coral skeletons, iron carbonate, dolomite, sodium carbonate, siderite, and potassium carbonate.



Cataclastic Rock
Geology Term
C
… is formed by the progressive fracturing of existing rock (cataclasis) and are known as fault rocks. Cataclasite, consists of angular clasts in a finer-grained matrix, fault breccia, are large cohesive or incohesive fragments of rock in a fine-grained matrix that may include mineral veins formed in the voids between the clasts. Fault gouge, an unconsolidated fault rock consists of finely crushed material, whereas pseudotachylites are formed by frictional melting and are found along a fault surface and as veins in fault walls with a glassy dark appearance.



Cataclastic Rock
Geology Term
C
… is formed by the progressive fracturing of existing rock (cataclasis) and are known as fault rocks. Cataclasite, consists of angular clasts in a finer-grained matrix, fault breccia, are large cohesive or incohesive fragments of rock in a fine-grained matrix that may include mineral veins formed in the voids between the clasts. Fault gouge, an unconsolidated fault rock consists of finely crushed material, whereas pseudotachylites are formed by frictional melting and are found along a fault surface and as veins in fault walls with a glassy dark appearance.



Cataclastic Rock
Geology Term
C
… is formed by the progressive fracturing of existing rock (cataclasis) and are known as fault rocks. Cataclasite, consists of angular clasts in a finer-grained matrix, fault breccia, are large cohesive or incohesive fragments of rock in a fine-grained matrix that may include mineral veins formed in the voids between the clasts. Fault gouge, an unconsolidated fault rock consists of finely crushed material, whereas pseudotachylites are formed by frictional melting and are found along a fault surface and as veins in fault walls with a glassy dark appearance.



Cataclastic Rock
Geology Term
C
… is formed by the progressive fracturing of existing rock (cataclasis) and are known as fault rocks. Cataclasite, consists of angular clasts in a finer-grained matrix, fault breccia, are large cohesive or incohesive fragments of rock in a fine-grained matrix that may include mineral veins formed in the voids between the clasts. Fault gouge, an unconsolidated fault rock consists of finely crushed material, whereas pseudotachylites are formed by frictional melting and are found along a fault surface and as veins in fault walls with a glassy dark appearance.



Cataclastic Rock
Geology Term
C
… is formed by the progressive fracturing of existing rock (cataclasis) and are known as fault rocks. Cataclasite, consists of angular clasts in a finer-grained matrix, fault breccia, are large cohesive or incohesive fragments of rock in a fine-grained matrix that may include mineral veins formed in the voids between the clasts. Fault gouge, an unconsolidated fault rock consists of finely crushed material, whereas pseudotachylites are formed by frictional melting and are found along a fault surface and as veins in fault walls with a glassy dark appearance.



Celestial Coordinates
Astronomy Term
C
… one of two angles, in the equatorial coordinate system, that locate a point on the celestial sphere, the other being “right ascension”, the hour angle. The angle of declination is comparable to geographic latitude, projected onto the celestial sphere, and is a vector, from -90° (celestial south pole) to 0° (celestial equator) to +90° (celestial north pole). Right ascension is comparable to longitude, projected onto the celestial sphere (meridian), and is vector of equatorial time as expressed with the sexagesimal system, one rotation being 24 hours (360°), 1 hour (15°), 1 minute (1/4°) and 1 second (1/240°). The vernal equinox marks the “0 hour” vector, the vernal point on the celestial equator.


Precession, nutation, and aberration, directly affect right ascension and declination.


The “epoch” is the moment in time that a given position of an astronomical object is valid, with the current standard equinox being J2000.0 (“J” Julian epoch), which is January 1, 2000 at 12:00 TT (Terrestrial Time).


Celestial Sphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 127 BC




Celestial Coordinates
Astronomy Term
C
… one of two angles, in the equatorial coordinate system, that locate a point on the celestial sphere, the other being “right ascension”, the hour angle. The angle of declination is comparable to geographic latitude, projected onto the celestial sphere, and is a vector, from -90° (celestial south pole) to 0° (celestial equator) to +90° (celestial north pole). Right ascension is comparable to longitude, projected onto the celestial sphere (meridian), and is vector of equatorial time as expressed with the sexagesimal system, one rotation being 24 hours (360°), 1 hour (15°), 1 minute (1/4°) and 1 second (1/240°). The vernal equinox marks the “0 hour” vector, the vernal point on the celestial equator.


Precession, nutation, and aberration, directly affect right ascension and declination.


The “epoch” is the moment in time that a given position of an astronomical object is valid, with the current standard equinox being J2000.0 (“J” Julian epoch), which is January 1, 2000 at 12:00 TT (Terrestrial Time).


Celestial Sphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 127 BC




Celestial Coordinates
Astronomy Term
C
… one of two angles, in the equatorial coordinate system, that locate a point on the celestial sphere, the other being “right ascension”, the hour angle. The angle of declination is comparable to geographic latitude, projected onto the celestial sphere, and is a vector, from -90° (celestial south pole) to 0° (celestial equator) to +90° (celestial north pole). Right ascension is comparable to longitude, projected onto the celestial sphere (meridian), and is vector of equatorial time as expressed with the sexagesimal system, one rotation being 24 hours (360°), 1 hour (15°), 1 minute (1/4°) and 1 second (1/240°). The vernal equinox marks the “0 hour” vector, the vernal point on the celestial equator.


Precession, nutation, and aberration, directly affect right ascension and declination.


The “epoch” is the moment in time that a given position of an astronomical object is valid, with the current standard equinox being J2000.0 (“J” Julian epoch), which is January 1, 2000 at 12:00 TT (Terrestrial Time).


Celestial Sphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 127 BC




Celestial Coordinates
Astronomy Term
C
… one of two angles, in the equatorial coordinate system, that locate a point on the celestial sphere, the other being “right ascension”, the hour angle. The angle of declination is comparable to geographic latitude, projected onto the celestial sphere, and is a vector, from -90° (celestial south pole) to 0° (celestial equator) to +90° (celestial north pole). Right ascension is comparable to longitude, projected onto the celestial sphere (meridian), and is vector of equatorial time as expressed with the sexagesimal system, one rotation being 24 hours (360°), 1 hour (15°), 1 minute (1/4°) and 1 second (1/240°). The vernal equinox marks the “0 hour” vector, the vernal point on the celestial equator.


Precession, nutation, and aberration, directly affect right ascension and declination.


The “epoch” is the moment in time that a given position of an astronomical object is valid, with the current standard equinox being J2000.0 (“J” Julian epoch), which is January 1, 2000 at 12:00 TT (Terrestrial Time).


Celestial Sphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 127 BC




Celestial Coordinates
Astronomy Term
C
… one of two angles, in the equatorial coordinate system, that locate a point on the celestial sphere, the other being “right ascension”, the hour angle. The angle of declination is comparable to geographic latitude, projected onto the celestial sphere, and is a vector, from -90° (celestial south pole) to 0° (celestial equator) to +90° (celestial north pole). Right ascension is comparable to longitude, projected onto the celestial sphere (meridian), and is vector of equatorial time as expressed with the sexagesimal system, one rotation being 24 hours (360°), 1 hour (15°), 1 minute (1/4°) and 1 second (1/240°). The vernal equinox marks the “0 hour” vector, the vernal point on the celestial equator.


Precession, nutation, and aberration, directly affect right ascension and declination.


The “epoch” is the moment in time that a given position of an astronomical object is valid, with the current standard equinox being J2000.0 (“J” Julian epoch), which is January 1, 2000 at 12:00 TT (Terrestrial Time).


Celestial Sphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Hipparchus of Nicaea, 127 BC




Cenozoic Era
Geology Timeline
C
65.5 Million Years Ago to Now


Tertiary Period · Palaeocene Epoch · Eocene Epoch
Oligocene Epoch · Miocene Epoch
Pliocene Epoch · Pleistocene Epoch · Holocene Epoch



Cenozoic Era
Geology Timeline
C
65.5 Million Years Ago to Now


Tertiary Period · Palaeocene Epoch · Eocene Epoch
Oligocene Epoch · Miocene Epoch
Pliocene Epoch · Pleistocene Epoch · Holocene Epoch



Cenozoic Era
Geology Timeline
C
65.5 Million Years Ago to Now


Tertiary Period · Palaeocene Epoch · Eocene Epoch
Oligocene Epoch · Miocene Epoch
Pliocene Epoch · Pleistocene Epoch · Holocene Epoch



Cenozoic Era
Geology Timeline
C
65.5 Million Years Ago to Now


Tertiary Period · Palaeocene Epoch · Eocene Epoch
Oligocene Epoch · Miocene Epoch
Pliocene Epoch · Pleistocene Epoch · Holocene Epoch



Cenozoic Era
Geology Timeline
C
65.5 Million Years Ago to Now


Tertiary Period · Palaeocene Epoch · Eocene Epoch
Oligocene Epoch · Miocene Epoch
Pliocene Epoch · Pleistocene Epoch · Holocene Epoch



Chandrasekhar Limit
Astronomy Term
C
… the maximum mass limit of a stable white dwarf star. This is the mass above electron degeneracy pressure in the core of the star where it cannot balance its own gravitational self-attraction. White dwarfs with masses greater than the limit will either explode, or collapse further to become a neutron star or a black hole.

Discovered by
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, 1930




Chandrasekhar Limit
Astronomy Term
C
… the maximum mass limit of a stable white dwarf star. This is the mass above electron degeneracy pressure in the core of the star where it cannot balance its own gravitational self-attraction. White dwarfs with masses greater than the limit will either explode, or collapse further to become a neutron star or a black hole.

Discovered by
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, 1930




Chandrasekhar Limit
Astronomy Term
C
… the maximum mass limit of a stable white dwarf star. This is the mass above electron degeneracy pressure in the core of the star where it cannot balance its own gravitational self-attraction. White dwarfs with masses greater than the limit will either explode, or collapse further to become a neutron star or a black hole.

Discovered by
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, 1930




Chandrasekhar Limit
Astronomy Term
C
… the maximum mass limit of a stable white dwarf star. This is the mass above electron degeneracy pressure in the core of the star where it cannot balance its own gravitational self-attraction. White dwarfs with masses greater than the limit will either explode, or collapse further to become a neutron star or a black hole.

Discovered by
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, 1930




Chandrasekhar Limit
Astronomy Term
C
… the maximum mass limit of a stable white dwarf star. This is the mass above electron degeneracy pressure in the core of the star where it cannot balance its own gravitational self-attraction. White dwarfs with masses greater than the limit will either explode, or collapse further to become a neutron star or a black hole.

Discovered by
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, 1930




Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… are stony, non-metallic meteorites that are formed from primitive asteroids and represent 86.2% of all falling meteorites and possess chondrules that are apportioned from 20 to 80 percent of all chondrites.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



ALH84001 · Abee Enstatite · Paragould, LL5




Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… are stony, non-metallic meteorites that are formed from primitive asteroids and represent 86.2% of all falling meteorites and possess chondrules that are apportioned from 20 to 80 percent of all chondrites.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



ALH84001 · Abee Enstatite · Paragould, LL5




Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… are stony, non-metallic meteorites that are formed from primitive asteroids and represent 86.2% of all falling meteorites and possess chondrules that are apportioned from 20 to 80 percent of all chondrites.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



ALH84001 · Abee Enstatite · Paragould, LL5




Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… are stony, non-metallic meteorites that are formed from primitive asteroids and represent 86.2% of all falling meteorites and possess chondrules that are apportioned from 20 to 80 percent of all chondrites.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



ALH84001 · Abee Enstatite · Paragould, LL5




Chondrite
Geology Term
C
… are stony, non-metallic meteorites that are formed from primitive asteroids and represent 86.2% of all falling meteorites and possess chondrules that are apportioned from 20 to 80 percent of all chondrites.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



ALH84001 · Abee Enstatite · Paragould, LL5




Chromatic Aberration
Imaging Term
C
… is a single lens where all wavelengths have different focus points on the same plane.


Chromatic Aberration

LD
SD
HD





Chromatic Aberration
Imaging Term
C
… is a single lens where all wavelengths have different focus points on the same plane.


Chromatic Aberration

LD
SD
HD





Chromatic Aberration
Imaging Term
C
… is a single lens where all wavelengths have different focus points on the same plane.


Chromatic Aberration

LD
SD
HD





Chromatic Aberration
Imaging Term
C
… is a single lens where all wavelengths have different focus points on the same plane.


Chromatic Aberration

LD
SD
HD





Chromatic Aberration
Imaging Term
C
… is a single lens where all wavelengths have different focus points on the same plane.


Chromatic Aberration

LD
SD
HD





Chromosphere
Astronomy Term
C
… is the solar atmosphere of our sun, between the photosphere and the corona and is 10,000 kilometres thick and ranges in temperature from below 10,000 Kelvin to over 100,000 Kelvin.


Chromosphere of Helios, our Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1851




Chromosphere
Astronomy Term
C
… is the solar atmosphere of our sun, between the photosphere and the corona and is 10,000 kilometres thick and ranges in temperature from below 10,000 Kelvin to over 100,000 Kelvin.


Chromosphere of Helios, our Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1851




Chromosphere
Astronomy Term
C
… is the solar atmosphere of our sun, between the photosphere and the corona and is 10,000 kilometres thick and ranges in temperature from below 10,000 Kelvin to over 100,000 Kelvin.


Chromosphere of Helios, our Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1851




Chromosphere
Astronomy Term
C
… is the solar atmosphere of our sun, between the photosphere and the corona and is 10,000 kilometres thick and ranges in temperature from below 10,000 Kelvin to over 100,000 Kelvin.


Chromosphere of Helios, our Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1851




Chromosphere
Astronomy Term
C
… is the solar atmosphere of our sun, between the photosphere and the corona and is 10,000 kilometres thick and ranges in temperature from below 10,000 Kelvin to over 100,000 Kelvin.


Chromosphere of Helios, our Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
George Biddell Airy, 1851




Collimator
Imaging Equipment
C
… a calibration tool that consists of a tube containing a convex lens at one end, with the other an adjustable aperture as the focal plane of the lens which uses a laser that radiates through a laser etched image that projects as a parallel beam.


Laser Collimator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Henry Kater, 1825




Collimator
Imaging Equipment
C
… a calibration tool that consists of a tube containing a convex lens at one end, with the other an adjustable aperture as the focal plane of the lens which uses a laser that radiates through a laser etched image that projects as a parallel beam.


Laser Collimator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Henry Kater, 1825




Collimator
Imaging Equipment
C
… a calibration tool that consists of a tube containing a convex lens at one end, with the other an adjustable aperture as the focal plane of the lens which uses a laser that radiates through a laser etched image that projects as a parallel beam.


Laser Collimator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Henry Kater, 1825




Collimator
Imaging Equipment
C
… a calibration tool that consists of a tube containing a convex lens at one end, with the other an adjustable aperture as the focal plane of the lens which uses a laser that radiates through a laser etched image that projects as a parallel beam.


Laser Collimator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Henry Kater, 1825




Collimator
Imaging Equipment
C
… a calibration tool that consists of a tube containing a convex lens at one end, with the other an adjustable aperture as the focal plane of the lens which uses a laser that radiates through a laser etched image that projects as a parallel beam.


Laser Collimator

LD
SD
HD



Invented by
Henry Kater, 1825




Comet
Quinary Plane
C
… a singular astronomical body with a nucleus composed of ice, dust, and rocky particles. Comets have a highly eccentric elliptical path and wide range of orbital periods, which range from several years (Kuiper Belt) to millions of years (Oort Cloud). Comets directly orbit a parent nucleus with a singular star or multiple stars of greater mass and when passing close, warms, release gases (outgassing) and produce singular or multiple coma (visible atmospheric tail), due to solar radiation and solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Hyperbolic comets may pass once through the inner Solar System before being flung to interstellar space.


There are an estimated 5,200 known Comets, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter, with a tail spanning 10 million times the size of its nucleus.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



P-2006D1 (Hill) · P-2006R1 (Siding Spring)
P-2007R1 (Larson) · P-2011VJ5 (Lmmon)




Comet
Quinary Plane
C
… a singular astronomical body with a nucleus composed of ice, dust, and rocky particles. Comets have a highly eccentric elliptical path and wide range of orbital periods, which range from several years (Kuiper Belt) to millions of years (Oort Cloud). Comets directly orbit a parent nucleus with a singular star or multiple stars of greater mass and when passing close, warms, release gases (outgassing) and produce singular or multiple coma (visible atmospheric tail), due to solar radiation and solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Hyperbolic comets may pass once through the inner Solar System before being flung to interstellar space.


There are an estimated 5,200 known Comets, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter, with a tail spanning 10 million times the size of its nucleus.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



P-2006D1 (Hill) · P-2006R1 (Siding Spring)
P-2007R1 (Larson) · P-2011VJ5 (Lmmon)




Comet
Quinary Plane
C
… a singular astronomical body with a nucleus composed of ice, dust, and rocky particles. Comets have a highly eccentric elliptical path and wide range of orbital periods, which range from several years (Kuiper Belt) to millions of years (Oort Cloud). Comets directly orbit a parent nucleus with a singular star or multiple stars of greater mass and when passing close, warms, release gases (outgassing) and produce singular or multiple coma (visible atmospheric tail), due to solar radiation and solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Hyperbolic comets may pass once through the inner Solar System before being flung to interstellar space.


There are an estimated 5,200 known Comets, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter, with a tail spanning 10 million times the size of its nucleus.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



P-2006D1 (Hill) · P-2006R1 (Siding Spring)
P-2007R1 (Larson) · P-2011VJ5 (Lmmon)




Comet
Quinary Plane
C
… a singular astronomical body with a nucleus composed of ice, dust, and rocky particles. Comets have a highly eccentric elliptical path and wide range of orbital periods, which range from several years (Kuiper Belt) to millions of years (Oort Cloud). Comets directly orbit a parent nucleus with a singular star or multiple stars of greater mass and when passing close, warms, release gases (outgassing) and produce singular or multiple coma (visible atmospheric tail), due to solar radiation and solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Hyperbolic comets may pass once through the inner Solar System before being flung to interstellar space.


There are an estimated 5,200 known Comets, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter, with a tail spanning 10 million times the size of its nucleus.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



P-2006D1 (Hill) · P-2006R1 (Siding Spring)
P-2007R1 (Larson) · P-2011VJ5 (Lmmon)




Comet
Quinary Plane
C
… a singular astronomical body with a nucleus composed of ice, dust, and rocky particles. Comets have a highly eccentric elliptical path and wide range of orbital periods, which range from several years (Kuiper Belt) to millions of years (Oort Cloud). Comets directly orbit a parent nucleus with a singular star or multiple stars of greater mass and when passing close, warms, release gases (outgassing) and produce singular or multiple coma (visible atmospheric tail), due to solar radiation and solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Hyperbolic comets may pass once through the inner Solar System before being flung to interstellar space.


There are an estimated 5,200 known Comets, ranging in size from 1m to 1,000km in diameter, with a tail spanning 10 million times the size of its nucleus.


Isheyevo, Sedimentary Chondrite

LD
SD
HD



P-2006D1 (Hill) · P-2006R1 (Siding Spring)
P-2007R1 (Larson) · P-2011VJ5 (Lmmon)




Conjunction
Astronomy Term
C
… occurs when two or more astronomical objects appear to be close in the same field of view, as with a planet or planets, moon or moons, star or stars, the Sun, or any combination thereof.


Conjunction, ATCA, Mercury, Venus & the Moon

LD
SD
HD





Conjunction
Astronomy Term
C
… occurs when two or more astronomical objects appear to be close in the same field of view, as with a planet or planets, moon or moons, star or stars, the Sun, or any combination thereof.


Conjunction, ATCA, Mercury, Venus & the Moon

LD
SD
HD





Conjunction
Astronomy Term
C
… occurs when two or more astronomical objects appear to be close in the same field of view, as with a planet or planets, moon or moons, star or stars, the Sun, or any combination thereof.


Conjunction, ATCA, Mercury, Venus & the Moon

LD
SD
HD





Conjunction
Astronomy Term
C
… occurs when two or more astronomical objects appear to be close in the same field of view, as with a planet or planets, moon or moons, star or stars, the Sun, or any combination thereof.


Conjunction, ATCA, Mercury, Venus & the Moon

LD
SD
HD





Conjunction
Astronomy Term
C
… occurs when two or more astronomical objects appear to be close in the same field of view, as with a planet or planets, moon or moons, star or stars, the Sun, or any combination thereof.


Conjunction, ATCA, Mercury, Venus & the Moon

LD
SD
HD





Constellation
Astronomy Term
C
… a star grouping that form imaginary patterns on the celestial sphere and are principally represented by animals, mythological people, creatures, or gods. There are 88 formally defined regions of the sky, covering the entire celestial sphere that form the modern constellations.


Constellation Map of the Northern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD




Constellation Map of the Southern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
The Scholars of Babylon, 3000 BC




Constellation
Astronomy Term
C
… a star grouping that form imaginary patterns on the celestial sphere and are principally represented by animals, mythological people, creatures, or gods. There are 88 formally defined regions of the sky, covering the entire celestial sphere that form the modern constellations.


Constellation Map of the Northern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD




Constellation Map of the Southern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
The Scholars of Babylon, 3000 BC




Constellation
Astronomy Term
C
… a star grouping that form imaginary patterns on the celestial sphere and are principally represented by animals, mythological people, creatures, or gods. There are 88 formally defined regions of the sky, covering the entire celestial sphere that form the modern constellations.


Constellation Map of the Northern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD




Constellation Map of the Southern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
The Scholars of Babylon, 3000 BC




Constellation
Astronomy Term
C
… a star grouping that form imaginary patterns on the celestial sphere and are principally represented by animals, mythological people, creatures, or gods. There are 88 formally defined regions of the sky, covering the entire celestial sphere that form the modern constellations.


Constellation Map of the Northern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD




Constellation Map of the Southern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
The Scholars of Babylon, 3000 BC




Constellation
Astronomy Term
C
… a star grouping that form imaginary patterns on the celestial sphere and are principally represented by animals, mythological people, creatures, or gods. There are 88 formally defined regions of the sky, covering the entire celestial sphere that form the modern constellations.


Constellation Map of the Northern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD




Constellation Map of the Southern Hemisphere

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
The Scholars of Babylon, 3000 BC




Construct
Primary Plane
C
… the universal gravitational amalgamations of galactic objects, which may include other similar constructs that and are bound in a system orbiting its collective barycentre.


Cosmic Web

LD
SD
HD





Construct
Primary Plane
C
… the universal gravitational amalgamations of galactic objects, which may include other similar constructs that and are bound in a system orbiting its collective barycentre.


Cosmic Web

LD
SD
HD





Construct
Primary Plane
C
… the universal gravitational amalgamations of galactic objects, which may include other similar constructs that and are bound in a system orbiting its collective barycentre.


Cosmic Web

LD
SD
HD





Construct
Primary Plane
C
… the universal gravitational amalgamations of galactic objects, which may include other similar constructs that and are bound in a system orbiting its collective barycentre.


Cosmic Web

LD
SD
HD





Construct
Primary Plane
C
… the universal gravitational amalgamations of galactic objects, which may include other similar constructs that and are bound in a system orbiting its collective barycentre.


Cosmic Web

LD
SD
HD





Corona
Astronomy Term
C
… is an aura of plasma that surrounds stars, including our sun and extends for millions of kilometres. Observable with a coronagraph, high temperatures, accompanied by spectral lines of highly ionized iron (Fe-XIV) green line at 5303 Å and the red line Fe-X at 6374 Å, exceed 1,000,000 Kelvin, hotter than the surface of the sun. There are three primary sources of light from the same volume of space.


The K-corona (K for kontinuierlich, “continuous”) is created by sunlight, scattering free electrons and with the doppler broadening of the reflected photospheric absorption lines, gives an appearance of a continuum with no absorption lines.


The F-corona (F for Fraunhofer, “Joseph von Fraunhofer”) is created by sunlight reflecting off dust particles, and is observable as this light contains the Fraunhofer absorption lines that are seen in raw sunlight.


The E-corona (E for emission) has spectral emission lines produced by ions, present in the coronal plasma, and may be observed in the hot spectral emission lines which provide the main source of information regarding the corona composition.


Solar Corona Detail during Eclipse

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Johannes Kepler, 1605




Corona
Astronomy Term
C
… is an aura of plasma that surrounds stars, including our sun and extends for millions of kilometres. Observable with a coronagraph, high temperatures, accompanied by spectral lines of highly ionized iron (Fe-XIV) green line at 5303 Å and the red line Fe-X at 6374 Å, exceed 1,000,000 Kelvin, hotter than the surface of the sun. There are three primary sources of light from the same volume of space.


The K-corona (K for kontinuierlich, “continuous”) is created by sunlight, scattering free electrons and with the doppler broadening of the reflected photospheric absorption lines, gives an appearance of a continuum with no absorption lines.


The F-corona (F for Fraunhofer, “Joseph von Fraunhofer”) is created by sunlight reflecting off dust particles, and is observable as this light contains the Fraunhofer absorption lines that are seen in raw sunlight.


The E-corona (E for emission) has spectral emission lines produced by ions, present in the coronal plasma, and may be observed in the hot spectral emission lines which provide the main source of information regarding the corona composition.


Solar Corona Detail during Eclipse

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Johannes Kepler, 1605




Corona
Astronomy Term
C
… is an aura of plasma that surrounds stars, including our sun and extends for millions of kilometres. Observable with a coronagraph, high temperatures, accompanied by spectral lines of highly ionized iron (Fe-XIV) green line at 5303 Å and the red line Fe-X at 6374 Å, exceed 1,000,000 Kelvin, hotter than the surface of the sun. There are three primary sources of light from the same volume of space.


The K-corona (K for kontinuierlich, “continuous”) is created by sunlight, scattering free electrons and with the doppler broadening of the reflected photospheric absorption lines, gives an appearance of a continuum with no absorption lines.


The F-corona (F for Fraunhofer, “Joseph von Fraunhofer”) is created by sunlight reflecting off dust particles, and is observable as this light contains the Fraunhofer absorption lines that are seen in raw sunlight.


The E-corona (E for emission) has spectral emission lines produced by ions, present in the coronal plasma, and may be observed in the hot spectral emission lines which provide the main source of information regarding the corona composition.


Solar Corona Detail during Eclipse

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Johannes Kepler, 1605




Corona
Astronomy Term
C
… is an aura of plasma that surrounds stars, including our sun and extends for millions of kilometres. Observable with a coronagraph, high temperatures, accompanied by spectral lines of highly ionized iron (Fe-XIV) green line at 5303 Å and the red line Fe-X at 6374 Å, exceed 1,000,000 Kelvin, hotter than the surface of the sun. There are three primary sources of light from the same volume of space.


The K-corona (K for kontinuierlich, “continuous”) is created by sunlight, scattering free electrons and with the doppler broadening of the reflected photospheric absorption lines, gives an appearance of a continuum with no absorption lines.


The F-corona (F for Fraunhofer, “Joseph von Fraunhofer”) is created by sunlight reflecting off dust particles, and is observable as this light contains the Fraunhofer absorption lines that are seen in raw sunlight.


The E-corona (E for emission) has spectral emission lines produced by ions, present in the coronal plasma, and may be observed in the hot spectral emission lines which provide the main source of information regarding the corona composition.


Solar Corona Detail during Eclipse

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Johannes Kepler, 1605




Corona
Astronomy Term
C
… is an aura of plasma that surrounds stars, including our sun and extends for millions of kilometres. Observable with a coronagraph, high temperatures, accompanied by spectral lines of highly ionized iron (Fe-XIV) green line at 5303 Å and the red line Fe-X at 6374 Å, exceed 1,000,000 Kelvin, hotter than the surface of the sun. There are three primary sources of light from the same volume of space.


The K-corona (K for kontinuierlich, “continuous”) is created by sunlight, scattering free electrons and with the doppler broadening of the reflected photospheric absorption lines, gives an appearance of a continuum with no absorption lines.


The F-corona (F for Fraunhofer, “Joseph von Fraunhofer”) is created by sunlight reflecting off dust particles, and is observable as this light contains the Fraunhofer absorption lines that are seen in raw sunlight.


The E-corona (E for emission) has spectral emission lines produced by ions, present in the coronal plasma, and may be observed in the hot spectral emission lines which provide the main source of information regarding the corona composition.


Solar Corona Detail during Eclipse

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Johannes Kepler, 1605




Cosmic Hierarchy
Astronomy Term
C
Cosmic Hierarchy
Astronomy Term
C
Cosmic Hierarchy
Astronomy Term
C
Cosmic Hierarchy
Astronomy Term
C
Cosmic Hierarchy
Astronomy Term
C
OMNIVERSE
OMNIVERSE
OMNIVERSE
OMNIVERSE
OMNIVERSE
PRINCIPAL AMBIT
PRINCIPAL AMBIT
PRINCIPAL AMBIT
PRINCIPAL AMBIT
PRINCIPAL AMBIT
(Omniverse & Singularity Junctures)
(Omniverse & Singularity Junctures)
(Omniverse & Singularity Junctures)
(Omniverse & Singularity Junctures)
(Omniverse & Singularity Junctures)


UNIVERSE
UNIVERSE
UNIVERSE
UNIVERSE
UNIVERSE
SECONDARY AMBIT
SECONDARY AMBIT
SECONDARY AMBIT
SECONDARY AMBIT
SECONDARY AMBIT
(Universes & Singularities)
(Universes & Singularities)
(Universes & Singularities)
(Universes & Singularities)
(Universes & Singularities)


CONSTRUCT
CONSTRUCT
CONSTRUCT
CONSTRUCT
CONSTRUCT
PRIMARY PLANE
PRIMARY PLANE
PRIMARY PLANE
PRIMARY PLANE
PRIMARY PLANE
(Galaxy Rogues, Clusters, Superclusters, Filaments & Groups)
(Intergalactic Stars, Bodies, Dust, Gases, & Voids)
(Galaxy Rogues, Clusters, Superclusters, Filaments & Groups)
(Intergalactic Stars, Bodies, Dust, Gases, & Voids)
(Galaxy Rogues, Clusters, Superclusters, Filaments & Groups)
(Intergalactic Stars, Bodies, Dust, Gases, & Voids)
(Galaxy Rogues, Clusters, Superclusters, Filaments & Groups)
(Intergalactic Stars, Bodies, Dust, Gases, & Voids)
(Galaxy Rogues, Clusters, Superclusters, Filaments & Groups)
(Intergalactic Stars, Bodies, Dust, Gases, & Voids)


GALAXY
GALAXY
GALAXY
GALAXY
GALAXY
SECONDARY PLANE
SECONDARY PLANE
SECONDARY PLANE
SECONDARY PLANE
SECONDARY PLANE
(Active, Elliptical, Lenticular, Barred, Spiral & Irregular Galaxies)
(Active, Elliptical, Lenticular, Barred, Spiral & Irregular Galaxies)
(Active, Elliptical, Lenticular, Barred, Spiral & Irregular Galaxies)
(Active, Elliptical, Lenticular, Barred, Spiral & Irregular Galaxies)
(Active, Elliptical, Lenticular, Barred, Spiral & Irregular Galaxies)


STELLAR
STELLAR
STELLAR
STELLAR
STELLAR
TERTIARY PLANE
TERTIARY PLANE
TERTIARY PLANE
TERTIARY PLANE
TERTIARY PLANE
(Emission, Reflection, Planetary, Dark & HII Region Nebulae)
(Supernovae, Stellar Streams, Globular & Open Clusters)
(Emission, Reflection, Planetary, Dark & HII Region Nebulae)
(Supernovae, Stellar Streams, Globular & Open Clusters)
(Emission, Reflection, Planetary, Dark & HII Region Nebulae)
(Supernovae, Stellar Streams, Globular & Open Clusters)
(Emission, Reflection, Planetary, Dark & HII Region Nebulae)
(Supernovae, Stellar Streams, Globular & Open Clusters)
(Emission, Reflection, Planetary, Dark & HII Region Nebulae)
(Supernovae, Stellar Streams, Globular & Open Clusters)


ASTRON
ASTRON
ASTRON
ASTRON
ASTRON
QUATERNARY PLANE
QUATERNARY PLANE
QUATERNARY PLANE
QUATERNARY PLANE
QUATERNARY PLANE
(Black Holes, Pulsars, Variable, Brown & Dwarf Stars)
(Black Holes, Pulsars, Variable, Brown & Dwarf Stars)
(Black Holes, Pulsars, Variable, Brown & Dwarf Stars)
(Black Holes, Pulsars, Variable, Brown & Dwarf Stars)
(Black Holes, Pulsars, Variable, Brown & Dwarf Stars)


PLANET
PLANET
PLANET
PLANET
PLANET
QUINARY PLANE
QUINARY PLANE
QUINARY PLANE
QUINARY PLANE
QUINARY PLANE
(Dwarf, Terrestrial, Gas & Ice Giant Planets)
(Asteroids, Comets & Meteors)
(Dwarf, Terrestrial, Gas & Ice Giant Planets)
(Asteroids, Comets & Meteors)
(Dwarf, Terrestrial, Gas & Ice Giant Planets)
(Asteroids, Comets & Meteors)
(Dwarf, Terrestrial, Gas & Ice Giant Planets)
(Asteroids, Comets & Meteors)
(Dwarf, Terrestrial, Gas & Ice Giant Planets)
(Asteroids, Comets & Meteors)


MOON
MOON
MOON
MOON
MOON
SENARY PLANE
SENARY PLANE
SENARY PLANE
SENARY PLANE
SENARY PLANE
(Regular, Irregular, Moons & Planetary Rings)
(Manufactured Planetary Satellites)
(Regular, Irregular, Moons & Planetary Rings)
(Manufactured Planetary Satellites)
(Regular, Irregular, Moons & Planetary Rings)
(Manufactured Planetary Satellites)
(Regular, Irregular, Moons & Planetary Rings)
(Manufactured Planetary Satellites)
(Regular, Irregular, Moons & Planetary Rings)
(Manufactured Planetary Satellites)


LUNAR
LUNAR
LUNAR
LUNAR
LUNAR
SEPTENARY PLANE
SEPTENARY PLANE
SEPTENARY PLANE
SEPTENARY PLANE
SEPTENARY PLANE
(Manufactured Lunar Satellites)
(Manufactured Lunar Satellites)
(Manufactured Lunar Satellites)
(Manufactured Lunar Satellites)
(Manufactured Lunar Satellites)



Cosmic Rays
Astronomy Term
B
… are high-energy radiation particles, the majority originating from outside the Solar System and when impacting with the atmosphere of the Earth, showers of secondary particles are created that rarely reach the surface. Their principal composition is of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that originate from supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei.

Discovered by
Victor Franz Hess, 1912




Cosmic Rays
Astronomy Term
B
… are high-energy radiation particles, the majority originating from outside the Solar System and when impacting with the atmosphere of the Earth, showers of secondary particles are created that rarely reach the surface. Their principal composition is of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that originate from supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei.

Discovered by
Victor Franz Hess, 1912




Cosmic Rays
Astronomy Term
B
… are high-energy radiation particles, the majority originating from outside the Solar System and when impacting with the atmosphere of the Earth, showers of secondary particles are created that rarely reach the surface. Their principal composition is of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that originate from supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei.

Discovered by
Victor Franz Hess, 1912




Cosmic Rays
Astronomy Term
B
… are high-energy radiation particles, the majority originating from outside the Solar System and when impacting with the atmosphere of the Earth, showers of secondary particles are created that rarely reach the surface. Their principal composition is of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that originate from supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei.

Discovered by
Victor Franz Hess, 1912




Cosmic Rays
Astronomy Term
B
… are high-energy radiation particles, the majority originating from outside the Solar System and when impacting with the atmosphere of the Earth, showers of secondary particles are created that rarely reach the surface. Their principal composition is of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that originate from supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei.

Discovered by
Victor Franz Hess, 1912




Cosmogony
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmogonist and cosmologist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmogonical view is that time is fundamental and eternal and not a product of space-time.



Cosmogony
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmogonist and cosmologist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmogonical view is that time is fundamental and eternal and not a product of space-time.



Cosmogony
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmogonist and cosmologist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmogonical view is that time is fundamental and eternal and not a product of space-time.



Cosmogony
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmogonist and cosmologist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmogonical view is that time is fundamental and eternal and not a product of space-time.



Cosmogony
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmogonist and cosmologist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmogonical view is that time is fundamental and eternal and not a product of space-time.



Cosmological Constant
Astronomy Term
C
… is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space and was introduced by Albert Einstein in 1917, as an addition to his theory of general relativity, to achieve a static universe. Later abandoned in 1929, when Einstein was made aware by Hubble, that all galaxies outside the Local Group are moving away from each other.


Then, in 2013, the newly discovered “steady-state theory” by Einstein in 1931, revives the cosmological constant, to include an expanding universe with constant mass. Since 1998, the discovery of an accelerating universe, have shown that around 68% of the mass–energy density of the universe can be attributed to dark energy and that the cosmological constant is the simplest possible form of dark energy since it is constant in both space and time, which lead to the current standard for cosmology, the Lambda-CDM model.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Cosmological Constant
Astronomy Term
C
… is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space and was introduced by Albert Einstein in 1917, as an addition to his theory of general relativity, to achieve a static universe. Later abandoned in 1929, when Einstein was made aware by Hubble, that all galaxies outside the Local Group are moving away from each other.


Then, in 2013, the newly discovered “steady-state theory” by Einstein in 1931, revives the cosmological constant, to include an expanding universe with constant mass. Since 1998, the discovery of an accelerating universe, have shown that around 68% of the mass–energy density of the universe can be attributed to dark energy and that the cosmological constant is the simplest possible form of dark energy since it is constant in both space and time, which lead to the current standard for cosmology, the Lambda-CDM model.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Cosmological Constant
Astronomy Term
C
… is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space and was introduced by Albert Einstein in 1917, as an addition to his theory of general relativity, to achieve a static universe. Later abandoned in 1929, when Einstein was made aware by Hubble, that all galaxies outside the Local Group are moving away from each other.


Then, in 2013, the newly discovered “steady-state theory” by Einstein in 1931, revives the cosmological constant, to include an expanding universe with constant mass. Since 1998, the discovery of an accelerating universe, have shown that around 68% of the mass–energy density of the universe can be attributed to dark energy and that the cosmological constant is the simplest possible form of dark energy since it is constant in both space and time, which lead to the current standard for cosmology, the Lambda-CDM model.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Cosmological Constant
Astronomy Term
C
… is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space and was introduced by Albert Einstein in 1917, as an addition to his theory of general relativity, to achieve a static universe. Later abandoned in 1929, when Einstein was made aware by Hubble, that all galaxies outside the Local Group are moving away from each other.


Then, in 2013, the newly discovered “steady-state theory” by Einstein in 1931, revives the cosmological constant, to include an expanding universe with constant mass. Since 1998, the discovery of an accelerating universe, have shown that around 68% of the mass–energy density of the universe can be attributed to dark energy and that the cosmological constant is the simplest possible form of dark energy since it is constant in both space and time, which lead to the current standard for cosmology, the Lambda-CDM model.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Cosmological Constant
Astronomy Term
C
… is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space and was introduced by Albert Einstein in 1917, as an addition to his theory of general relativity, to achieve a static universe. Later abandoned in 1929, when Einstein was made aware by Hubble, that all galaxies outside the Local Group are moving away from each other.


Then, in 2013, the newly discovered “steady-state theory” by Einstein in 1931, revives the cosmological constant, to include an expanding universe with constant mass. Since 1998, the discovery of an accelerating universe, have shown that around 68% of the mass–energy density of the universe can be attributed to dark energy and that the cosmological constant is the simplest possible form of dark energy since it is constant in both space and time, which lead to the current standard for cosmology, the Lambda-CDM model.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Cosmological Principle
Astronomy Term
C
… is the understanding that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic. Forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structure of the matter field that was established by the Big Bang singularity.


Homogeneity and isotropy are testable consequences of the cosmological principle. Homogeneity means that the same observational evidence is available to all observers throughout the universe. Isotropy means that the same observational evidence is available by looking in any direction in the universe.

Discovered by
Sir Isaac Newton, 1687




Cosmological Principle
Astronomy Term
C
… is the understanding that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic. Forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structure of the matter field that was established by the Big Bang singularity.


Homogeneity and isotropy are testable consequences of the cosmological principle. Homogeneity means that the same observational evidence is available to all observers throughout the universe. Isotropy means that the same observational evidence is available by looking in any direction in the universe.

Discovered by
Sir Isaac Newton, 1687




Cosmological Principle
Astronomy Term
C
… is the understanding that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic. Forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structure of the matter field that was established by the Big Bang singularity.


Homogeneity and isotropy are testable consequences of the cosmological principle. Homogeneity means that the same observational evidence is available to all observers throughout the universe. Isotropy means that the same observational evidence is available by looking in any direction in the universe.

Discovered by
Sir Isaac Newton, 1687




Cosmological Principle
Astronomy Term
C
… is the understanding that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic. Forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structure of the matter field that was established by the Big Bang singularity.


Homogeneity and isotropy are testable consequences of the cosmological principle. Homogeneity means that the same observational evidence is available to all observers throughout the universe. Isotropy means that the same observational evidence is available by looking in any direction in the universe.

Discovered by
Sir Isaac Newton, 1687




Cosmological Principle
Astronomy Term
C
… is the understanding that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic. Forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structure of the matter field that was established by the Big Bang singularity.


Homogeneity and isotropy are testable consequences of the cosmological principle. Homogeneity means that the same observational evidence is available to all observers throughout the universe. Isotropy means that the same observational evidence is available by looking in any direction in the universe.

Discovered by
Sir Isaac Newton, 1687




Cosmology
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmologist and cosmogonist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmological view is that time is a product of space-time, reasoning that nothing existed before this event.



Cosmology
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmologist and cosmogonist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmological view is that time is a product of space-time, reasoning that nothing existed before this event.



Cosmology
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmologist and cosmogonist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmological view is that time is a product of space-time, reasoning that nothing existed before this event.



Cosmology
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmologist and cosmogonist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmological view is that time is a product of space-time, reasoning that nothing existed before this event.



Cosmology
Astronomy Term
C
… is the study of any model concerning the origin of the cosmos, omniverse, or universe. The principal difference between the cosmologist and cosmogonist is regarding the origins of the singularity and whether time existed “before” the emergence of our universe. The cosmological view is that time is a product of space-time, reasoning that nothing existed before this event.



Cosmos
Astronomy Term
C
… is ALL THAT IS, the Principal Ambit, the Omniverse, which gave rise to our universe.



Cosmos
Astronomy Term
C
… is ALL THAT IS, the Principal Ambit, the Omniverse, which gave rise to our universe.



Cosmos
Astronomy Term
C
… is ALL THAT IS, the Principal Ambit, the Omniverse, which gave rise to our universe.



Cosmos
Astronomy Term
C
… is ALL THAT IS, the Principal Ambit, the Omniverse, which gave rise to our universe.



Cosmos
Astronomy Term
C
… is ALL THAT IS, the Principal Ambit, the Omniverse, which gave rise to our universe.



Cratons
Geology Term
C
… an ancient and stable part of the continental lithosphere of Earth, consisting of two topmost layers, the crust, and the uppermost mantle. Cratons are principally found in the interiors of tectonic plates and are composed of ancient crystalline basement rock, are covered with young sediments, thick crust and deep lithospheric roots that extend as much as several hundred kilometres into the Earth’s mantle. The term, craton, distinguishes the stable portion of the continental crust from more geologically active and unstable regions. Cratons can be described as shields, when basement rock crops out at the surface, and platforms, basement overlaid by sediments and sedimentary rock.
North China Craton · Amazonia Craton, South America
Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa
Gawler Craton, South Australia · Sarmatian Craton, Russia & Ukraine
Laurentia Craton, North America



Cratons
Geology Term
C
… an ancient and stable part of the continental lithosphere of Earth, consisting of two topmost layers, the crust, and the uppermost mantle. Cratons are principally found in the interiors of tectonic plates and are composed of ancient crystalline basement rock, are covered with young sediments, thick crust and deep lithospheric roots that extend as much as several hundred kilometres into the Earth’s mantle. The term, craton, distinguishes the stable portion of the continental crust from more geologically active and unstable regions. Cratons can be described as shields, when basement rock crops out at the surface, and platforms, basement overlaid by sediments and sedimentary rock.
North China Craton · Amazonia Craton, South America
Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa
Gawler Craton, South Australia · Sarmatian Craton, Russia & Ukraine
Laurentia Craton, North America



Cratons
Geology Term
C
… an ancient and stable part of the continental lithosphere of Earth, consisting of two topmost layers, the crust, and the uppermost mantle. Cratons are principally found in the interiors of tectonic plates and are composed of ancient crystalline basement rock, are covered with young sediments, thick crust and deep lithospheric roots that extend as much as several hundred kilometres into the Earth’s mantle. The term, craton, distinguishes the stable portion of the continental crust from more geologically active and unstable regions. Cratons can be described as shields, when basement rock crops out at the surface, and platforms, basement overlaid by sediments and sedimentary rock.
North China Craton · Amazonia Craton, South America
Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa
Gawler Craton, South Australia · Sarmatian Craton, Russia & Ukraine
Laurentia Craton, North America



Cratons
Geology Term
C
… an ancient and stable part of the continental lithosphere of Earth, consisting of two topmost layers, the crust, and the uppermost mantle. Cratons are principally found in the interiors of tectonic plates and are composed of ancient crystalline basement rock, are covered with young sediments, thick crust and deep lithospheric roots that extend as much as several hundred kilometres into the Earth’s mantle. The term, craton, distinguishes the stable portion of the continental crust from more geologically active and unstable regions. Cratons can be described as shields, when basement rock crops out at the surface, and platforms, basement overlaid by sediments and sedimentary rock.
North China Craton · Amazonia Craton, South America
Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa
Gawler Craton, South Australia · Sarmatian Craton, Russia & Ukraine
Laurentia Craton, North America



Cratons
Geology Term
C
… an ancient and stable part of the continental lithosphere of Earth, consisting of two topmost layers, the crust, and the uppermost mantle. Cratons are principally found in the interiors of tectonic plates and are composed of ancient crystalline basement rock, are covered with young sediments, thick crust and deep lithospheric roots that extend as much as several hundred kilometres into the Earth’s mantle. The term, craton, distinguishes the stable portion of the continental crust from more geologically active and unstable regions. Cratons can be described as shields, when basement rock crops out at the surface, and platforms, basement overlaid by sediments and sedimentary rock.
North China Craton · Amazonia Craton, South America
Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa
Gawler Craton, South Australia · Sarmatian Craton, Russia & Ukraine
Laurentia Craton, North America



D
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
D
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
D
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
D
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
D
Dark Energy
Astronomy Term
C
… is an unknown form of energy that permeate all of space that accelerates with the expansion of the universe. Dark energy contributes to 68.3% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark matter of 26.8% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%. Two forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant, (constant energy density filling homogeneous space), and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density vary in time and space.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Dark Energy
Astronomy Term
C
… is an unknown form of energy that permeate all of space that accelerates with the expansion of the universe. Dark energy contributes to 68.3% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark matter of 26.8% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%. Two forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant, (constant energy density filling homogeneous space), and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density vary in time and space.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Dark Energy
Astronomy Term
C
… is an unknown form of energy that permeate all of space that accelerates with the expansion of the universe. Dark energy contributes to 68.3% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark matter of 26.8% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%. Two forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant, (constant energy density filling homogeneous space), and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density vary in time and space.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Dark Energy
Astronomy Term
C
… is an unknown form of energy that permeate all of space that accelerates with the expansion of the universe. Dark energy contributes to 68.3% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark matter of 26.8% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%. Two forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant, (constant energy density filling homogeneous space), and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density vary in time and space.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Dark Energy
Astronomy Term
C
… is an unknown form of energy that permeate all of space that accelerates with the expansion of the universe. Dark energy contributes to 68.3% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark matter of 26.8% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%. Two forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant, (constant energy density filling homogeneous space), and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density vary in time and space.

Discovered by
Albert Einstein, 1912




Dark Matter
Astronomy Term
D
… is distinct from baryonic (ordinary) matter as it does not emit or interact with electromagnetic radiation, thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Dark matter is inferred by the gravitational effects of gravitational lensing, augmented motion of visible matter and influence over large-scale structures in the universe. Dark matter contributes to 26.8% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark energy of 68.3% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%.

Discovered by
Vera Cooper Rubin, 1956




Dark Matter
Astronomy Term
D
… is distinct from baryonic (ordinary) matter as it does not emit or interact with electromagnetic radiation, thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Dark matter is inferred by the gravitational effects of gravitational lensing, augmented motion of visible matter and influence over large-scale structures in the universe. Dark matter contributes to 26.8% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark energy of 68.3% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%.

Discovered by
Vera Cooper Rubin, 1956




Dark Matter
Astronomy Term
D
… is distinct from baryonic (ordinary) matter as it does not emit or interact with electromagnetic radiation, thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Dark matter is inferred by the gravitational effects of gravitational lensing, augmented motion of visible matter and influence over large-scale structures in the universe. Dark matter contributes to 26.8% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark energy of 68.3% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%.

Discovered by
Vera Cooper Rubin, 1956




Dark Matter
Astronomy Term
D
… is distinct from baryonic (ordinary) matter as it does not emit or interact with electromagnetic radiation, thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Dark matter is inferred by the gravitational effects of gravitational lensing, augmented motion of visible matter and influence over large-scale structures in the universe. Dark matter contributes to 26.8% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark energy of 68.3% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%.

Discovered by
Vera Cooper Rubin, 1956




Dark Matter
Astronomy Term
D
… is distinct from baryonic (ordinary) matter as it does not emit or interact with electromagnetic radiation, thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Dark matter is inferred by the gravitational effects of gravitational lensing, augmented motion of visible matter and influence over large-scale structures in the universe. Dark matter contributes to 26.8% of total energy in our observable universe, with the mass–energy of dark energy of 68.3% and baryonic (ordinary) matter at 4.9%.

Discovered by
Vera Cooper Rubin, 1956




Dark Nebula
Tertiary Plane
D
… also known as absorption nebulae, a class of interstellar cloud that is a birthplace for stars and planets. Visible as infrared, radio or light radiation, their luminosity is obscured by dark clouds that are a result of sub-micrometre-sized dust particles, coated with frozen carbon monoxide and nitrogen, which block light at visible wavelengths. Molecular hydrogen, helium, ammonia, formaldehyde, cyclopropenylidene and diazenylium are all relatively transparent. Dark clouds are very irregular with no clearly defined outer boundaries and generally adopt serpentine shapes.


Lagoon Nebula (M8 · NGC6523)

LD
SD
HD



Dark Horse Nebula (B59, B77 & B78) · Horsehead Nebula (B33)
Snake Nebula (B72) · Trifid Nebula (B85)




Dark Nebula
Tertiary Plane
D
… also known as absorption nebulae, a class of interstellar cloud that is a birthplace for stars and planets. Visible as infrared, radio or light radiation, their luminosity is obscured by dark clouds that are a result of sub-micrometre-sized dust particles, coated with frozen carbon monoxide and nitrogen, which block light at visible wavelengths. Molecular hydrogen, helium, ammonia, formaldehyde, cyclopropenylidene and diazenylium are all relatively transparent. Dark clouds are very irregular with no clearly defined outer boundaries and generally adopt serpentine shapes.


Lagoon Nebula (M8 · NGC6523)

LD
SD
HD



Dark Horse Nebula (B59, B77 & B78) · Horsehead Nebula (B33)
Snake Nebula (B72) · Trifid Nebula (B85)




Dark Nebula
Tertiary Plane
D
… also known as absorption nebulae, a class of interstellar cloud that is a birthplace for stars and planets. Visible as infrared, radio or light radiation, their luminosity is obscured by dark clouds that are a result of sub-micrometre-sized dust particles, coated with frozen carbon monoxide and nitrogen, which block light at visible wavelengths. Molecular hydrogen, helium, ammonia, formaldehyde, cyclopropenylidene and diazenylium are all relatively transparent. Dark clouds are very irregular with no clearly defined outer boundaries and generally adopt serpentine shapes.


Lagoon Nebula (M8 · NGC6523)

LD
SD
HD



Dark Horse Nebula (B59, B77 & B78) · Horsehead Nebula (B33)
Snake Nebula (B72) · Trifid Nebula (B85)




Dark Nebula
Tertiary Plane
D
… also known as absorption nebulae, a class of interstellar cloud that is a birthplace for stars and planets. Visible as infrared, radio or light radiation, their luminosity is obscured by dark clouds that are a result of sub-micrometre-sized dust particles, coated with frozen carbon monoxide and nitrogen, which block light at visible wavelengths. Molecular hydrogen, helium, ammonia, formaldehyde, cyclopropenylidene and diazenylium are all relatively transparent. Dark clouds are very irregular with no clearly defined outer boundaries and generally adopt serpentine shapes.


Lagoon Nebula (M8 · NGC6523)

LD
SD
HD



Dark Horse Nebula (B59, B77 & B78) · Horsehead Nebula (B33)
Snake Nebula (B72) · Trifid Nebula (B85)




Dark Nebula
Tertiary Plane
D
… also known as absorption nebulae, a class of interstellar cloud that is a birthplace for stars and planets. Visible as infrared, radio or light radiation, their luminosity is obscured by dark clouds that are a result of sub-micrometre-sized dust particles, coated with frozen carbon monoxide and nitrogen, which block light at visible wavelengths. Molecular hydrogen, helium, ammonia, formaldehyde, cyclopropenylidene and diazenylium are all relatively transparent. Dark clouds are very irregular with no clearly defined outer boundaries and generally adopt serpentine shapes.


Lagoon Nebula (M8 · NGC6523)

LD
SD
HD



Dark Horse Nebula (B59, B77 & B78) · Horsehead Nebula (B33)
Snake Nebula (B72) · Trifid Nebula (B85)




Diaplectic Glass
Geology Term
D
… glass phase formed by shock pressure and polysynthetic crystal twinning of Maskelynite and plagioclase feldspar tectosilicate minerals, without melting, and found in association with meteorite impact craters.


Maskelynite in White (NWA3171)

LD
SD
HD





Diaplectic Glass
Geology Term
D
… glass phase formed by shock pressure and polysynthetic crystal twinning of Maskelynite and plagioclase feldspar tectosilicate minerals, without melting, and found in association with meteorite impact craters.


Maskelynite in White (NWA3171)

LD
SD
HD





Diaplectic Glass
Geology Term
D
… glass phase formed by shock pressure and polysynthetic crystal twinning of Maskelynite and plagioclase feldspar tectosilicate minerals, without melting, and found in association with meteorite impact craters.


Maskelynite in White (NWA3171)

LD
SD
HD





Diaplectic Glass
Geology Term
D
… glass phase formed by shock pressure and polysynthetic crystal twinning of Maskelynite and plagioclase feldspar tectosilicate minerals, without melting, and found in association with meteorite impact craters.


Maskelynite in White (NWA3171)

LD
SD
HD





Diaplectic Glass
Geology Term
D
… glass phase formed by shock pressure and polysynthetic crystal twinning of Maskelynite and plagioclase feldspar tectosilicate minerals, without melting, and found in association with meteorite impact craters.


Maskelynite in White (NWA3171)

LD
SD
HD





Diffraction
Imaging Term
C
… a natural or manufactured optical surface with ridges or rulings of a periodic structure, which split and diffract light into a multitude of beams that are dependent on grating spacing, the wavelength of the light and the ridges or rulings on surfaces that are either transmissive or reflective, producing a rainbow of colours.


Natural Diffraction of Sunlight

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
James Gregory, 1673




Diffraction
Imaging Term
C
… a natural or manufactured optical surface with ridges or rulings of a periodic structure, which split and diffract light into a multitude of beams that are dependent on grating spacing, the wavelength of the light and the ridges or rulings on surfaces that are either transmissive or reflective, producing a rainbow of colours.


Natural Diffraction of Sunlight

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
James Gregory, 1673




Diffraction
Imaging Term
C
… a natural or manufactured optical surface with ridges or rulings of a periodic structure, which split and diffract light into a multitude of beams that are dependent on grating spacing, the wavelength of the light and the ridges or rulings on surfaces that are either transmissive or reflective, producing a rainbow of colours.


Natural Diffraction of Sunlight

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
James Gregory, 1673




Diffraction
Imaging Term
C
… a natural or manufactured optical surface with ridges or rulings of a periodic structure, which split and diffract light into a multitude of beams that are dependent on grating spacing, the wavelength of the light and the ridges or rulings on surfaces that are either transmissive or reflective, producing a rainbow of colours.


Natural Diffraction of Sunlight

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
James Gregory, 1673




Diffraction
Imaging Term
C
… a natural or manufactured optical surface with ridges or rulings of a periodic structure, which split and diffract light into a multitude of beams that are dependent on grating spacing, the wavelength of the light and the ridges or rulings on surfaces that are either transmissive or reflective, producing a rainbow of colours.


Natural Diffraction of Sunlight

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
James Gregory, 1673




Dwarf Planet
Quinary Plane
D
… a solid planetary surface composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals and does not require a central core or atmosphere. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’000’000’4 to 0.000’000’1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Ceres · Pluto · Haumea · Makemake · Eris

LD
SD
HD





Dwarf Planet
Quinary Plane
D
… a solid planetary surface composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals and does not require a central core or atmosphere. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’000’000’4 to 0.000’000’1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Ceres · Pluto · Haumea · Makemake · Eris

LD
SD
HD





Dwarf Planet
Quinary Plane
D
… a solid planetary surface composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals and does not require a central core or atmosphere. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’000’000’4 to 0.000’000’1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Ceres · Pluto · Haumea · Makemake · Eris

LD
SD
HD





Dwarf Planet
Quinary Plane
D
… a solid planetary surface composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals and does not require a central core or atmosphere. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’000’000’4 to 0.000’000’1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Ceres · Pluto · Haumea · Makemake · Eris

LD
SD
HD





Dwarf Planet
Quinary Plane
D
… a solid planetary surface composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals and does not require a central core or atmosphere. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’000’000’4 to 0.000’000’1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Ceres · Pluto · Haumea · Makemake · Eris

LD
SD
HD





E
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
E
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
E
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
E
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
E
Elliptical Galaxy
Secondary Plane
E
… amounting to 15% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from a circular galactic core (E0) with no central form or arms, to (E3), (E5) & (E7) with an elliptical core that is not barred, without arms and is surrounded by a halo.


M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)

LD
SD
HD



M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Elliptical Galaxy
Secondary Plane
E
… amounting to 15% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from a circular galactic core (E0) with no central form or arms, to (E3), (E5) & (E7) with an elliptical core that is not barred, without arms and is surrounded by a halo.


M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)

LD
SD
HD



M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Elliptical Galaxy
Secondary Plane
E
… amounting to 15% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from a circular galactic core (E0) with no central form or arms, to (E3), (E5) & (E7) with an elliptical core that is not barred, without arms and is surrounded by a halo.


M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)

LD
SD
HD



M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Elliptical Galaxy
Secondary Plane
E
… amounting to 15% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from a circular galactic core (E0) with no central form or arms, to (E3), (E5) & (E7) with an elliptical core that is not barred, without arms and is surrounded by a halo.


M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)

LD
SD
HD



M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Elliptical Galaxy
Secondary Plane
E
… amounting to 15% of all galaxies in the known universe, the Hubble Classification ranges from a circular galactic core (E0) with no central form or arms, to (E3), (E5) & (E7) with an elliptical core that is not barred, without arms and is surrounded by a halo.


M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)

LD
SD
HD



M87 (NGC4486, PGC41361)


Discovered by
Edwin Powell Hubble, 1924




Emission Nebula
Tertiary Plane
E
… generate their own source of radiation (light, x-ray) by stars radiating amongst stellar clouds of ionised gas, which are principally composed of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen and oxygen.


Carina Nebula (NGC3372)

LD
SD
HD



NGC7000 · NGC6960 · NGC6992 · Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC6523)
Orion Nebula (M42) · Flame Nebula (NGC2024)


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




Emission Nebula
Tertiary Plane
E
… generate their own source of radiation (light, x-ray) by stars radiating amongst stellar clouds of ionised gas, which are principally composed of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen and oxygen.


Carina Nebula (NGC3372)

LD
SD
HD



NGC7000 · NGC6960 · NGC6992 · Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC6523)
Orion Nebula (M42) · Flame Nebula (NGC2024)


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




Emission Nebula
Tertiary Plane
E
… generate their own source of radiation (light, x-ray) by stars radiating amongst stellar clouds of ionised gas, which are principally composed of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen and oxygen.


Carina Nebula (NGC3372)

LD
SD
HD



NGC7000 · NGC6960 · NGC6992 · Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC6523)
Orion Nebula (M42) · Flame Nebula (NGC2024)


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




Emission Nebula
Tertiary Plane
E
… generate their own source of radiation (light, x-ray) by stars radiating amongst stellar clouds of ionised gas, which are principally composed of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen and oxygen.


Carina Nebula (NGC3372)

LD
SD
HD



NGC7000 · NGC6960 · NGC6992 · Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC6523)
Orion Nebula (M42) · Flame Nebula (NGC2024)


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




Emission Nebula
Tertiary Plane
E
… generate their own source of radiation (light, x-ray) by stars radiating amongst stellar clouds of ionised gas, which are principally composed of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen and oxygen.


Carina Nebula (NGC3372)

LD
SD
HD



NGC7000 · NGC6960 · NGC6992 · Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC6523)
Orion Nebula (M42) · Flame Nebula (NGC2024)


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




F
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
F
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
F
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
F
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
F
Faculae
Astronomy Term
F
… are the bright patches that are on the photosphere (surface) of the Sun.


Faculae on the Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Galileo Galilei, 1610




Faculae
Astronomy Term
F
… are the bright patches that are on the photosphere (surface) of the Sun.


Faculae on the Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Galileo Galilei, 1610




Faculae
Astronomy Term
F
… are the bright patches that are on the photosphere (surface) of the Sun.


Faculae on the Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Galileo Galilei, 1610




Faculae
Astronomy Term
F
… are the bright patches that are on the photosphere (surface) of the Sun.


Faculae on the Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Galileo Galilei, 1610




Faculae
Astronomy Term
F
… are the bright patches that are on the photosphere (surface) of the Sun.


Faculae on the Sun

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Galileo Galilei, 1610




G
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
G
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
G
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
G
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
G
Galaxy
Secondary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound collective of stellar objects that orbit their combined centre of mass (Barycentre) at the speed and departure angle established by the Singularity Event at the birth and expansion of a Universe.


Arp 273 (UGC1810, PGC8961)

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, 964




Galaxy
Secondary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound collective of stellar objects that orbit their combined centre of mass (Barycentre) at the speed and departure angle established by the Singularity Event at the birth and expansion of a Universe.


Arp 273 (UGC1810, PGC8961)

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, 964




Galaxy
Secondary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound collective of stellar objects that orbit their combined centre of mass (Barycentre) at the speed and departure angle established by the Singularity Event at the birth and expansion of a Universe.


Arp 273 (UGC1810, PGC8961)

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, 964




Galaxy
Secondary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound collective of stellar objects that orbit their combined centre of mass (Barycentre) at the speed and departure angle established by the Singularity Event at the birth and expansion of a Universe.


Arp 273 (UGC1810, PGC8961)

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, 964




Galaxy
Secondary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound collective of stellar objects that orbit their combined centre of mass (Barycentre) at the speed and departure angle established by the Singularity Event at the birth and expansion of a Universe.


Arp 273 (UGC1810, PGC8961)

LD
SD
HD



Discovered by
Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, 964




Galaxy Cluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of gravitationally bound structures that consist of hundreds to thousands of galaxies, each with an excess of 1,000 solar masses. Clusters possess an intracluster medium which consists of heated gas between the galaxies at a peak temperature of between 2 to 15 keV and is dependent on the total mass of the cluster.


Perseus Cluster (NGC1275)

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Cluster · Coma Cluster · Fornax Cluster · Great Attractor
Hercules Cluster · Norma Cluster · Virgo Cluster




Galaxy Cluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of gravitationally bound structures that consist of hundreds to thousands of galaxies, each with an excess of 1,000 solar masses. Clusters possess an intracluster medium which consists of heated gas between the galaxies at a peak temperature of between 2 to 15 keV and is dependent on the total mass of the cluster.


Perseus Cluster (NGC1275)

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Cluster · Coma Cluster · Fornax Cluster · Great Attractor
Hercules Cluster · Norma Cluster · Virgo Cluster




Galaxy Cluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of gravitationally bound structures that consist of hundreds to thousands of galaxies, each with an excess of 1,000 solar masses. Clusters possess an intracluster medium which consists of heated gas between the galaxies at a peak temperature of between 2 to 15 keV and is dependent on the total mass of the cluster.


Perseus Cluster (NGC1275)

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Cluster · Coma Cluster · Fornax Cluster · Great Attractor
Hercules Cluster · Norma Cluster · Virgo Cluster




Galaxy Cluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of gravitationally bound structures that consist of hundreds to thousands of galaxies, each with an excess of 1,000 solar masses. Clusters possess an intracluster medium which consists of heated gas between the galaxies at a peak temperature of between 2 to 15 keV and is dependent on the total mass of the cluster.


Perseus Cluster (NGC1275)

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Cluster · Coma Cluster · Fornax Cluster · Great Attractor
Hercules Cluster · Norma Cluster · Virgo Cluster




Galaxy Cluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of gravitationally bound structures that consist of hundreds to thousands of galaxies, each with an excess of 1,000 solar masses. Clusters possess an intracluster medium which consists of heated gas between the galaxies at a peak temperature of between 2 to 15 keV and is dependent on the total mass of the cluster.


Perseus Cluster (NGC1275)

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Cluster · Coma Cluster · Fornax Cluster · Great Attractor
Hercules Cluster · Norma Cluster · Virgo Cluster




Galaxy Filament
Primary Plane
G
… a structural containment of millions of galaxies and are the largest known structures in the universe. They are also known as supercluster complexes, galaxy walls and galaxy sheets and have a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs (163 to 261 million light-years).


Coma Filament

LD
SD
HD



Lynx-Ursa Major Filament · Ursa Major Filament
Perseus-Pegasus Filament




Galaxy Filament
Primary Plane
G
… a structural containment of millions of galaxies and are the largest known structures in the universe. They are also known as supercluster complexes, galaxy walls and galaxy sheets and have a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs (163 to 261 million light-years).


Coma Filament

LD
SD
HD



Lynx-Ursa Major Filament · Ursa Major Filament
Perseus-Pegasus Filament




Galaxy Filament
Primary Plane
G
… a structural containment of millions of galaxies and are the largest known structures in the universe. They are also known as supercluster complexes, galaxy walls and galaxy sheets and have a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs (163 to 261 million light-years).


Coma Filament

LD
SD
HD



Lynx-Ursa Major Filament · Ursa Major Filament
Perseus-Pegasus Filament




Galaxy Filament
Primary Plane
G
… a structural containment of millions of galaxies and are the largest known structures in the universe. They are also known as supercluster complexes, galaxy walls and galaxy sheets and have a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs (163 to 261 million light-years).


Coma Filament

LD
SD
HD



Lynx-Ursa Major Filament · Ursa Major Filament
Perseus-Pegasus Filament




Galaxy Filament
Primary Plane
G
… a structural containment of millions of galaxies and are the largest known structures in the universe. They are also known as supercluster complexes, galaxy walls and galaxy sheets and have a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs (163 to 261 million light-years).


Coma Filament

LD
SD
HD



Lynx-Ursa Major Filament · Ursa Major Filament
Perseus-Pegasus Filament




Galaxy Group
Primary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound group of galaxies comprising of fewer than 50 members, each member with at least the same luminosity as the Milky Way.


Cheshire Cat Group

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Group · Local Group
Stephan’s Quintet




Galaxy Group
Primary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound group of galaxies comprising of fewer than 50 members, each member with at least the same luminosity as the Milky Way.


Cheshire Cat Group

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Group · Local Group
Stephan’s Quintet




Galaxy Group
Primary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound group of galaxies comprising of fewer than 50 members, each member with at least the same luminosity as the Milky Way.


Cheshire Cat Group

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Group · Local Group
Stephan’s Quintet




Galaxy Group
Primary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound group of galaxies comprising of fewer than 50 members, each member with at least the same luminosity as the Milky Way.


Cheshire Cat Group

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Group · Local Group
Stephan’s Quintet




Galaxy Group
Primary Plane
G
… a gravitationally bound group of galaxies comprising of fewer than 50 members, each member with at least the same luminosity as the Milky Way.


Cheshire Cat Group

LD
SD
HD



Bullet Group · Local Group
Stephan’s Quintet




Galaxy Rogue
Primary Plane
G
… are Isolated Galaxies or Void Galaxies, devoid of gravitational interaction with other galaxies or galactic constructs and represent pristine examples of galactic evolution.


MCG-01-02-015 Rogue Galaxy

LD
SD
HD



MCG+01-02-015 · PC1357+4641 · IRAS14288+5255
G1517+3949 · CG547 · CG637 · CG922




Galaxy Rogue
Primary Plane
G
… are Isolated Galaxies or Void Galaxies, devoid of gravitational interaction with other galaxies or galactic constructs and represent pristine examples of galactic evolution.


MCG-01-02-015 Rogue Galaxy

LD
SD
HD



MCG+01-02-015 · PC1357+4641 · IRAS14288+5255
G1517+3949 · CG547 · CG637 · CG922




Galaxy Rogue
Primary Plane
G
… are Isolated Galaxies or Void Galaxies, devoid of gravitational interaction with other galaxies or galactic constructs and represent pristine examples of galactic evolution.


MCG-01-02-015 Rogue Galaxy

LD
SD
HD



MCG+01-02-015 · PC1357+4641 · IRAS14288+5255
G1517+3949 · CG547 · CG637 · CG922




Galaxy Rogue
Primary Plane
G
… are Isolated Galaxies or Void Galaxies, devoid of gravitational interaction with other galaxies or galactic constructs and represent pristine examples of galactic evolution.


MCG-01-02-015 Rogue Galaxy

LD
SD
HD



MCG+01-02-015 · PC1357+4641 · IRAS14288+5255
G1517+3949 · CG547 · CG637 · CG922




Galaxy Rogue
Primary Plane
G
… are Isolated Galaxies or Void Galaxies, devoid of gravitational interaction with other galaxies or galactic constructs and represent pristine examples of galactic evolution.


MCG-01-02-015 Rogue Galaxy

LD
SD
HD



MCG+01-02-015 · PC1357+4641 · IRAS14288+5255
G1517+3949 · CG547 · CG637 · CG922




Galaxy Supercluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of galaxy clusters or galaxy groups that are not bound by gravity. There are an estimated 10 million superclusters in the observable universe.


Laniakea Supercluster

LD
SD
HD



Leo Supercluster · Perseus Supercluster
Virgo Supercluster




Galaxy Supercluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of galaxy clusters or galaxy groups that are not bound by gravity. There are an estimated 10 million superclusters in the observable universe.


Laniakea Supercluster

LD
SD
HD



Leo Supercluster · Perseus Supercluster
Virgo Supercluster




Galaxy Supercluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of galaxy clusters or galaxy groups that are not bound by gravity. There are an estimated 10 million superclusters in the observable universe.


Laniakea Supercluster

LD
SD
HD



Leo Supercluster · Perseus Supercluster
Virgo Supercluster




Galaxy Supercluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of galaxy clusters or galaxy groups that are not bound by gravity. There are an estimated 10 million superclusters in the observable universe.


Laniakea Supercluster

LD
SD
HD



Leo Supercluster · Perseus Supercluster
Virgo Supercluster




Galaxy Supercluster
Primary Plane
G
… a grouping of galaxy clusters or galaxy groups that are not bound by gravity. There are an estimated 10 million superclusters in the observable universe.


Laniakea Supercluster

LD
SD
HD



Leo Supercluster · Perseus Supercluster
Virgo Supercluster




Giant Planet
Quinary Plane
G
… defined by the composition and state of the planetary surface, Gas Giants consist of hydrogen and helium in a gaseous form, whereas the Ice Giants contain frozen hydrogen and helium, water, ammonia, and methane. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’04 to 0.1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune

LD
SD
HD





Giant Planet
Quinary Plane
G
… defined by the composition and state of the planetary surface, Gas Giants consist of hydrogen and helium in a gaseous form, whereas the Ice Giants contain frozen hydrogen and helium, water, ammonia, and methane. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’04 to 0.1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune

LD
SD
HD





Giant Planet
Quinary Plane
G
… defined by the composition and state of the planetary surface, Gas Giants consist of hydrogen and helium in a gaseous form, whereas the Ice Giants contain frozen hydrogen and helium, water, ammonia, and methane. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’04 to 0.1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune

LD
SD
HD





Giant Planet
Quinary Plane
G
… defined by the composition and state of the planetary surface, Gas Giants consist of hydrogen and helium in a gaseous form, whereas the Ice Giants contain frozen hydrogen and helium, water, ammonia, and methane. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’04 to 0.1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune

LD
SD
HD





Giant Planet
Quinary Plane
G
… defined by the composition and state of the planetary surface, Gas Giants consist of hydrogen and helium in a gaseous form, whereas the Ice Giants contain frozen hydrogen and helium, water, ammonia, and methane. The planetary body mass must be within the range of 0.000’04 to 0.1 times the mass of the Parent Nucleus.


Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune

LD
SD
HD





Globular Cluster
Tertiary Plane
G
… a spherical, gravitationally bound, group of stars of high stellar density and are generally found in the halo of a galaxy with a general orbital radius of 40 kiloparsecs, containing more stars than the less dense open clusters of young stars.


M5 (NGC5904)

LD
SD
HD



M2 · M4 · M5 · M13 · M15 · M22 · M71




Globular Cluster
Tertiary Plane
G
… a spherical, gravitationally bound, group of stars of high stellar density and are generally found in the halo of a galaxy with a general orbital radius of 40 kiloparsecs, containing more stars than the less dense open clusters of young stars.


M5 (NGC5904)

LD
SD
HD



M2 · M4 · M5 · M13 · M15 · M22 · M71




Globular Cluster
Tertiary Plane
G
… a spherical, gravitationally bound, group of stars of high stellar density and are generally found in the halo of a galaxy with a general orbital radius of 40 kiloparsecs, containing more stars than the less dense open clusters of young stars.


M5 (NGC5904)

LD
SD
HD



M2 · M4 · M5 · M13 · M15 · M22 · M71




Globular Cluster
Tertiary Plane
G
… a spherical, gravitationally bound, group of stars of high stellar density and are generally found in the halo of a galaxy with a general orbital radius of 40 kiloparsecs, containing more stars than the less dense open clusters of young stars.


M5 (NGC5904)

LD
SD
HD



M2 · M4 · M5 · M13 · M15 · M22 · M71




Globular Cluster
Tertiary Plane
G
… a spherical, gravitationally bound, group of stars of high stellar density and are generally found in the halo of a galaxy with a general orbital radius of 40 kiloparsecs, containing more stars than the less dense open clusters of young stars.


M5 (NGC5904)

LD
SD
HD



M2 · M4 · M5 · M13 · M15 · M22 · M71




H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
Hadean Time
Geology Timeline
H
4,540 Million Years Ago


Birth date of the Earth



Hadean Time
Geology Timeline
H
4,540 Million Years Ago


Birth date of the Earth



Hadean Time
Geology Timeline
H
4,540 Million Years Ago


Birth date of the Earth



Hadean Time
Geology Timeline
H
4,540 Million Years Ago


Birth date of the Earth



Hadean Time
Geology Timeline
H
4,540 Million Years Ago


Birth date of the Earth



Herbig Haro Objects
Tertiary Plane
H
… are a nebulosity phenomenon that lasts a few thousand years, when a star birth ejects dust and gas that collide with a nearby cloud of gas.


Herbig-Haro 24

LD
SD
HD



HH1 · HH32 · HH34 · MHO27




Herbig Haro Objects
Tertiary Plane
H
… are a nebulosity phenomenon that lasts a few thousand years, when a star birth ejects dust and gas that collide with a nearby cloud of gas.


Herbig-Haro 24

LD
SD
HD



HH1 · HH32 · HH34 · MHO27




Herbig Haro Objects
Tertiary Plane
H
… are a nebulosity phenomenon that lasts a few thousand years, when a star birth ejects dust and gas that collide with a nearby cloud of gas.


Herbig-Haro 24

LD
SD
HD



HH1 · HH32 · HH34 · MHO27




Herbig Haro Objects
Tertiary Plane
H
… are a nebulosity phenomenon that lasts a few thousand years, when a star birth ejects dust and gas that collide with a nearby cloud of gas.


Herbig-Haro 24

LD
SD
HD



HH1 · HH32 · HH34 · MHO27




Herbig Haro Objects
Tertiary Plane
H
… are a nebulosity phenomenon that lasts a few thousand years, when a star birth ejects dust and gas that collide with a nearby cloud of gas.


Herbig-Haro 24

LD
SD
HD



HH1 · HH32 · HH34 · MHO27




HII Regions
Tertiary Plane
H
… nurseries for star and planetary formation, they contain an irregular distribution of stars and are principally composed of interstellar atomic hydrogen. Young, short-lived blue stars are created in these regions and emit copious amounts of ultraviolet radiation (light) that ionise surrounding gas and are often associated with giant molecular clouds, ranging in size from one to hundreds of light years and with a density of up to a million particles per cubic cm. The Orion Nebula, is in part, a HII region.


Pillars of Creation

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




HII Regions
Tertiary Plane
H
… nurseries for star and planetary formation, they contain an irregular distribution of stars and are principally composed of interstellar atomic hydrogen. Young, short-lived blue stars are created in these regions and emit copious amounts of ultraviolet radiation (light) that ionise surrounding gas and are often associated with giant molecular clouds, ranging in size from one to hundreds of light years and with a density of up to a million particles per cubic cm. The Orion Nebula, is in part, a HII region.


Pillars of Creation

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




HII Regions
Tertiary Plane
H
… nurseries for star and planetary formation, they contain an irregular distribution of stars and are principally composed of interstellar atomic hydrogen. Young, short-lived blue stars are created in these regions and emit copious amounts of ultraviolet radiation (light) that ionise surrounding gas and are often associated with giant molecular clouds, ranging in size from one to hundreds of light years and with a density of up to a million particles per cubic cm. The Orion Nebula, is in part, a HII region.


Pillars of Creation

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




HII Regions
Tertiary Plane
H
… nurseries for star and planetary formation, they contain an irregular distribution of stars and are principally composed of interstellar atomic hydrogen. Young, short-lived blue stars are created in these regions and emit copious amounts of ultraviolet radiation (light) that ionise surrounding gas and are often associated with giant molecular clouds, ranging in size from one to hundreds of light years and with a density of up to a million particles per cubic cm. The Orion Nebula, is in part, a HII region.


Pillars of Creation

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




HII Regions
Tertiary Plane
H
… nurseries for star and planetary formation, they contain an irregular distribution of stars and are principally composed of interstellar atomic hydrogen. Young, short-lived blue stars are created in these regions and emit copious amounts of ultraviolet radiation (light) that ionise surrounding gas and are often associated with giant molecular clouds, ranging in size from one to hundreds of light years and with a density of up to a million particles per cubic cm. The Orion Nebula, is in part, a HII region.


Pillars of Creation

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106


Discovered by
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, 1610




I
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
I
Intergalactic Body
Primary Plane
I
… are Planets, Moons, Asteroids and Meteors that orbit the galaxy directly and are not gravitationally bound to any stellar body.


OTS 44 Intergalactic Brown Dwarf Star

LD
SD
HD



Cha-110913-773444 · WISE J1741-4642 · SDSS J111010.01+011613.1
PSO J318.5-22 · WISEA 1147




Intergalactic Body
Primary Plane
I
… are Planets, Moons, Asteroids and Meteors that orbit the galaxy directly and are not gravitationally bound to any stellar body.


OTS 44 Intergalactic Brown Dwarf Star

LD
SD
HD



Cha-110913-773444 · WISE J1741-4642 · SDSS J111010.01+011613.1
PSO J318.5-22 · WISEA 1147




Intergalactic Body
Primary Plane
I
… are Planets, Moons, Asteroids and Meteors that orbit the galaxy directly and are not gravitationally bound to any stellar body.


OTS 44 Intergalactic Brown Dwarf Star

LD
SD
HD



Cha-110913-773444 · WISE J1741-4642 · SDSS J111010.01+011613.1
PSO J318.5-22 · WISEA 1147




Intergalactic Body
Primary Plane
I
… are Planets, Moons, Asteroids and Meteors that orbit the galaxy directly and are not gravitationally bound to any stellar body.


OTS 44 Intergalactic Brown Dwarf Star

LD
SD
HD



Cha-110913-773444 · WISE J1741-4642 · SDSS J111010.01+011613.1
PSO J318.5-22 · WISEA 1147




Intergalactic Body
Primary Plane
I
… are Planets, Moons, Asteroids and Meteors that orbit the galaxy directly and are not gravitationally bound to any stellar body.


OTS 44 Intergalactic Brown Dwarf Star

LD
SD
HD



Cha-110913-773444 · WISE J1741-4642 · SDSS J111010.01+011613.1
PSO J318.5-22 · WISEA 1147




Intergalactic Dust
Primary Plane
I
… lies between galaxies in intergalactic space and can form dust clouds and are known to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dust may be polarised, due to intense magnetic fields, collectively orientating each particle.


HVC-127-41-330 Intergalactic Dust

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106




Intergalactic Dust
Primary Plane
I
… lies between galaxies in intergalactic space and can form dust clouds and are known to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dust may be polarised, due to intense magnetic fields, collectively orientating each particle.


HVC-127-41-330 Intergalactic Dust

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106




Intergalactic Dust
Primary Plane
I
… lies between galaxies in intergalactic space and can form dust clouds and are known to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dust may be polarised, due to intense magnetic fields, collectively orientating each particle.


HVC-127-41-330 Intergalactic Dust

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106




Intergalactic Dust
Primary Plane
I
… lies between galaxies in intergalactic space and can form dust clouds and are known to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dust may be polarised, due to intense magnetic fields, collectively orientating each particle.


HVC-127-41-330 Intergalactic Dust

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106




Intergalactic Dust
Primary Plane
I
… lies between galaxies in intergalactic space and can form dust clouds and are known to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dust may be polarised, due to intense magnetic fields, collectively orientating each particle.


HVC-127-41-330 Intergalactic Dust

LD
SD
HD



Horsehead Nebula (B33) · LH95 · M17 · N11
N159 · NGC2024 · S106




Intergalactic Gas
Primary Plane
I
… found in the most barren regions of space with one atom per cubic meter of hydrogen gas accounting for the principal majority for all atoms in the universe. On vast scales, this network forms filamentary (cosmic web) structures span for billions of light years.


Large Magellanic Cloud (LH95)

LD
SD
HD





Intergalactic Gas
Primary Plane
I
… found in the most barren regions of space with one atom per cubic meter of hydrogen gas accounting for the principal majority for all atoms in the universe. On vast scales, this network forms filamentary (cosmic web) structures span for billions of light years.


Large Magellanic Cloud (LH95)

LD
SD
HD





Intergalactic Gas
Primary Plane
I
… found in the most barren regions of space with one atom per cubic meter of hydrogen gas accounting for the principal majority for all atoms in the universe. On vast scales, this network forms filamentary (cosmic web) structures span for billions of light years.


Large Magellanic Cloud (LH95)

LD
SD
HD





Intergalactic Gas
Primary Plane
I
… found in the most barren regions of space with one atom per cubic meter of hydrogen gas accounting for the principal majority for all atoms in the universe. On vast scales, this network forms filamentary (cosmic web) structures span for billions of light years.


Large Magellanic Cloud (LH95)

LD
SD
HD





Intergalactic Gas
Primary Plane
I
… found in the most barren regions of space with one atom per cubic meter of hydrogen gas accounting for the principal majority for all atoms in the universe. On vast scales, this network forms filamentary (cosmic web) structures span for billions of light years.


Large Magellanic Cloud (LH95)

LD
SD
HD





Intergalactic Star
Primary Plane
I
… are intracluster stars or rogue stars that are not gravitationally bound to any galaxy and are referred to as the intracluster stellar population.


NGC2419 Intergalactic Star

LD
SD
HD



HVS1 (SDSS J090744.99+024506.8 · HVS2 (SDSS J093320.86+441705.4)
HVS3 (HE 0437-5439) · HVS 4 (SDSS J091301.00+305120.0)
HVS5 (SDSS J091759.42+672238.7)




Intergalactic Star
Primary Plane
I
… are intracluster stars or rogue stars that are not gravitationally bound to any galaxy and are referred to as the intracluster stellar population.


NGC2419 Intergalactic Star

LD
SD
HD



HVS1 (SDSS J090744.99+024506.8 · HVS2 (SDSS J093320.86+441705.4)
HVS3 (HE 0437-5439) · HVS 4 (SDSS J091301.00+305120.0)
HVS5 (SDSS J091759.42+672238.7)




Intergalactic Star
Primary Plane
I
… are intracluster stars or rogue stars that are not gravitationally bound to any galaxy and are referred to as the intracluster stellar population.


NGC2419 Intergalactic Star

LD
SD
HD



HVS1 (SDSS J090744.99+024506.8 · HVS2 (SDSS J093320.86+441705.4)
HVS3 (HE 0437-5439) · HVS 4 (SDSS J091301.00+305120.0)
HVS5 (SDSS J091759.42+672238.7)




Intergalactic Star
Primary Plane
I
… are intracluster stars or rogue stars that are not gravitationally bound to any galaxy and are referred to as the intracluster stellar population.


NGC2419 Intergalactic Star

LD
SD
HD



HVS1 (SDSS J090744.99+024506.8 · HVS2 (SDSS J093320.86+441705.4)
HVS3 (HE 0437-5439) · HVS 4 (SDSS J091301.00+305120.0)
HVS5 (SDSS J091759.42+672238.7)




Intergalactic Star
Primary Plane
I
… are intracluster stars or rogue stars that are not gravitationally bound to any galaxy and are referred to as the intracluster stellar population.


NGC2419 Intergalactic Star

LD
SD
HD



HVS1 (SDSS J090744.99+024506.8 · HVS2 (SDSS J093320.86+441705.4)
HVS3 (HE 0437-5439) · HVS 4 (SDSS J091301.00+305120.0)
HVS5 (SDSS J091759.42+672238.7)




Intergalactic Void
Primary Plane
I
… a result of a large scale, foam-like distribution of galaxies, with Constructs of Galaxy Clusters and Galaxy Groups, aligning with filaments that occupy a tenth of the total space, with the remaining huge voids spanning distances between 10 to 40 million parsecs.


The voids are occupied by rarefied plasma that represents a galactic filamentary structure, known as the intergalactic medium with a density of 5 to 200 times the average density of the Universe and primarily consisting of ionised hydrogen. As gas traverses into the intergalactic medium from the voids, it heats up to temperatures of 107K, high enough to cause bound electrons to escape from the hydrogen nuclei and is why the intergalactic medium is ionised. It is estimated that up to half of the atomic matter in the Universe may exist in this warm, rarefied state.


Boötes Void

LD
SD
HD



Canis Major Void · Columba Void · Fornax Void
Leo Void · Sculptor Void · Taurus Void




Intergalactic Void
Primary Plane
I
… a result of a large scale, foam-like distribution of galaxies, with Constructs of Galaxy Clusters and Galaxy Groups, aligning with filaments that occupy a tenth of the total space, with the remaining huge voids spanning distances between 10 to 40 million parsecs.


The voids are occupied by rarefied plasma that represents a galactic filamentary structure, known as the intergalactic medium with a density of 5 to 200 times the average density of the Universe and primarily consisting of ionised hydrogen. As gas traverses into the intergalactic medium from the voids, it heats up to temperatures of 107K, high enough to cause bound electrons to escape from the hydrogen nuclei and is why the intergalactic medium is ionised. It is estimated that up to half of the atomic matter in the Universe may exist in this warm, rarefied state.


Boötes Void

LD