# SCIENTIAM QUIA OMNES

# SCIENTIAM QUIA OMNES

# SCIENTIAM QUIA OMNES

# SCIENTIAM QUIA OMNES

# SCIENTIAM QUIA OMNES

# EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE

# EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE

# EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE

# EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE

# EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE

# EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM

# EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM

# EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM

# EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM

# EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM

###### Secondary, Year 11

###### Secondary, Year 11

###### Secondary, Year 11

###### Secondary, Year 11

###### Secondary, Year 11

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

**Overview**

**Rationale**

English focuses on developing students’ analytical, creative and critical thinking and communication skills in all language modes. It encourages students to engage with texts from their contemporary world, with texts from the past and with texts from Australian and other cultures. Such engagement helps students develop a sense of themselves, their world and their place in it.

Through close study and wide reading, viewing and listening, students develop the ability to appreciate and evaluate the purpose, stylistic qualities and conventions of literary and non-literary texts and enjoy creating their own imaginative, interpretive and analytical responses. English is designed to develop students’ facility with all types of texts and language modes and to foster an appreciation of the value of English for lifelong learning.

Students refine their skills across all language modes by engaging critically and creatively with texts, including literary and media texts. They learn to speak and write fluently in a range of contexts and to create visual and digital texts. They hone their oral communication skills through discussion, debate and argument, in a range of formal and informal situations.

**Aims**

All senior secondary English subjects aim to develop students’:

- skills in listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing;
- capacity to create texts for a range of purposes, audiences and contexts;
- understanding and appreciation of different uses of language.

In addition, English aims to develop students’:

- understanding of the use of language for communication;
- appreciation and creation of sustained interpretive, persuasive and imaginative texts in a range of modes;
- engagement in critical analysis and reflection.

**Overview of the senior secondary Australian Curriculum**

The senior secondary Australian Curriculum for each subject has been organised into four units. The last two units are cognitively more challenging than the first two units. Each unit is designed to be taught in about half a ‘school year’ of senior secondary studies (approximately 50–60 hours duration including assessment and examinations). However, the senior secondary units have also been designed so that they may be studied singly, in pairs (that is, year-long), or as four units over two years.

**Senior secondary English subjects**

The senior secondary Australian Curriculum for English is presented in four subjects that share common features. These include the continuing development of students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing. Differences between the subjects lie in the emphasis on how knowledge and skills are developed and the contexts in which they are applied. Each of the four senior secondary Australian Curriculum subjects emphasises different aspects of the study of the English learning area.

In all subjects, teachers and students choose from a wide range of fiction and non-fiction (complete texts or extracts) in a range of forms and from a variety of contexts including earlier times, popular culture and different cultures:

- English is a study of literature, media and language in which students critically and creatively engage with a variety of texts in all language modes. English extends students’ language, literature and literacy skills for a range of purposes and audiences and builds on the knowledge and skills developed in the Foundation to Year 10 curriculum. Students engage in a detailed study of increasingly complex texts and language. They learn how to analyse different interpretations of texts and how to use language modes to achieve specific effects;
- Essential English is designed to develop students’ literacy skills and for those who wish to undertake a practical English course. Students examine the purpose and language of a range of texts, expanding their ability to understand, evaluate and communicate effectively in and for a range of contexts. Essential English develops and refines students’ language, literature and literacy skills, which enable them to interact confidently and effectively with others in everyday, community, social and applied learning contexts;
- Literature provides students with the opportunity to study literature at an intensive level and aims to engage students in the detailed study of literary texts. It builds on the knowledge and skills developed in the Foundation to Year 10 curriculum. Literature deepens students’ understanding of conventions common to different types of composition, and refines their understanding of the effects of language through shared experience of texts and the creative process. Learning to appreciate literary texts, and to create their own, enriches students’ understanding of human experiences and the capacity for language to communicate those experiences;
- English as an Additional Language or Dialect ( EAL/D ) is designed to develop students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in Standard Australian English (SAE). Students studying this subject will benefit in all curriculum areas from explicit teaching of the structure, linguistic features and sociolinguistic and sociocultural aspects of SAE. EAL/D provides a variety of language, literature and literacy experiences to accommodate the diverse range of starting points for students learning English as an additional language or dialect. EAL/D focuses on how language and texts can vary in structure and usage depending on cultural and social context, and how language can change according to audience and purpose. One of the key focuses of EAL/D is the development of students’ oral language skills.

**Unit 1**

In Unit 1, students explore how meaning is communicated through the relationships between language, text, purpose, context and audience. This includes how language and texts are shaped by their purpose, the audiences for whom they are intended and the contexts in which they are created and received. Through responding to and creating texts, students consider how language, structure and conventions operate in a variety of imaginative, interpretive and persuasive texts. Study in this unit focuses on the similarities and differences between texts and how visual elements combine with spoken and written elements to create meaning. Students develop an understanding of stylistic features and apply skills of analysis and creativity. They are able to respond to texts in a variety of ways, creating their own texts and reflecting on their own learning.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the relationships between purpose, context and audience and how these relationships influence texts and their meaning;
- investigate how text structures and language features are used to convey ideas and represent people and events in a range of texts;
- create oral, written and multimodal texts appropriate for different audiences, purposes and contexts.

Investigate the relationships between language, context and meaning by:

- explaining how texts are created in and for different contexts;
- analysing how language choices are made for different purposes and in different contexts using appropriate metalanguage; for example, personification, voice-over, flashback, salience;
- evaluating the choice of mode and medium in shaping the response of audiences, including digital texts.

Examine similarities and differences between imaginative, persuasive and interpretive texts including:

- explaining the ways language features, text structures and conventions communicate ideas and points of view;
- explaining the ways text structures, language features and stylistic choices are used in different types of texts;
- analysing how vocabulary, idiom and rhetoric are used for different purposes and contexts;
- evaluating the impact of description and imagery, including figurative language, and still and moving images in digital and multimodal texts.

Analyse and evaluate how responses to texts, including students’ own responses, are influenced by:

- purpose, taking into account that a text’s purpose is often open to debate;
- personal, social and cultural context;
- the use of imaginative, persuasive and interpretive techniques.

Create a range of texts:

- using appropriate form, content, style and tone for different purposes and audiences in real and imagined contexts;
- drawing on a range of technologies in, for example, research, communication and representation of ideas;
- combining visual, spoken and written elements where appropriate;
- using evidence-based argument;
- using appropriate quotation and referencing protocols;
- using strategies for planning, drafting, editing and proofreading;
- using accurate spelling, punctuation, syntax and metalanguage.

Reflect on their own and others’ texts by:

- analysing textual evidence to assess the purpose and context of texts;
- questioning responses to texts;
- investigating the impact and uses of imaginative, interpretive and persuasive texts.

**Unit 2**

In Unit 2, students analyse the representation of ideas, attitudes and voices in texts to consider how texts represent the world and human experience. Analysis of how language and structural choices shape perspectives in and for a range of contexts is central to this unit. By responding to and creating texts in different modes and mediums, students consider the interplay of imaginative, interpretive and persuasive elements in a range of texts and present their own analyses. Students examine the effect of stylistic choices and the ways in which these choices position audiences for particular purposes, revealing attitudes, values and perspectives. Through the creation of their own texts, students are encouraged to reflect on their language choices and consider why they have represented ideas in particular ways.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the ways in which ideas and attitudes are represented in texts ;
- examine the ways texts are constructed to influence responses;
- create oral, written and multimodal texts that experiment with text structures and language features for particular audiences, purposes and contexts.

Compare texts in a variety of contexts, mediums and modes by:

- explaining the relationship between purpose and context;
- analysing the style and structure of texts including digital texts;
- evaluating similarities and differences between hybrid texts, for example, infotainment, product placement in movies, hypertext fiction.

Investigate the representation of ideas, attitudes and voices in texts including:

- analysing the ways language features, text structures and stylistic choices shape points of view and influence audiences;
- evaluating the effects of rhetorical devices, for example, emphasis, emotive language and imagery in the construction of argument;
- analysing the effects of using multimodal and digital conventions such as navigation, sound and image;
- analysing how attitude and mood are created, for example, through the use of humour in satire and parody.

Analyse and evaluate how and why responses to texts vary through:

- the impact of language and structural choices on shaping own and others’ perspectives;
- the ways ideas, attitudes and voices are represented, for example, how events are reported differently in the media;
- the interplay between imaginative, persuasive and interpretive techniques, for example, how anecdotes are used in speeches to amuse, inform or influence, or the use of characteristation in advertising;
- analysing changing responses to texts over time and in different cultural contexts.

Create a range of texts:

- using imaginative, interpretive and persuasive elements for different purposes, contexts and audiences;
- experimenting with text structures, language features and multimodal devices;
- developing and sustaining voice, tone and style;
- selecting and applying appropriate textual evidence to support arguments;
- using strategies for planning, drafting, editing and proofreading;
- using accurate spelling, punctuation, syntax and metalanguage.

Reflect on their own and others’ texts by:

- analysing the values and attitudes expressed in texts;
- evaluating the effectiveness of texts in representing ideas, attitudes and voices;
- explaining how and why texts position readers and viewers.

**Responding to oral, written and multimodal texts**

A.

- evaluates the relationships between context, purpose and audience and how effectively they shape meaning and achieve particular effects;
- evaluates how language features, conventions and stylistic devices combine in different modes and mediums to influence audiences;
- evaluates how ideas, attitudes and voices are represented in texts and the effect of the representation;
- critically analyses similarities and differences between different types of texts, demonstrating insight into intention and effect.

B.

- analyses the relationships between context, purpose and audience and how they shape meaning;
- analyses how language features, conventions and stylistic devices are used in different modes and mediums to influence audiences;
- analyses ideas, attitudes and voices in texts and how they are represented;
- analyses similarities and differences between different types of texts, demonstrating understanding of intention and effect.

C.

- explains how context, purpose and audience shape meaning;
- explains language features, conventions and stylistic devices used in different modes and mediums;
- explains ideas, attitudes and voices in texts;
- explains similarities and differences between different types of texts.

D.

- describes contexts, purposes and audiences of some texts;
- describes some language features and conventions used in different modes and mediums;
- describes some ideas, attitudes and voices in texts;
- describes some similarities and differences between different types of texts.

E.

- identifies some aspects of context, purpose and audience of some texts;
- identifies some language features used in different modes and mediums;
- identifies some ideas in texts;
- identifies some connections between texts.

**Creating oral, written and multimodal texts**

A.

- communicates sophisticated ideas across a range of coherent texts for different purposes, contexts and audiences;
- selects text structures and language features to communicate ideas perceptively in a range of modes;
- manipulates voice, tone and style for effect;
- communicates ideas demonstrating fluent and precise expression.

B.

- communicates ideas across a range of effective texts for different purposes, contexts and audiences;
- selects text structures and language features to communicate ideas effectively in a range of modes;
- demonstrates consistent control of voice, tone and style;
- communicates ideas demonstrating effective and controlled expression.

C.

- communicates ideas in texts that address purpose, context and audience;
- uses appropriate text structures and language features to communicate ideas in a range of modes;
- demonstrates variable control of voice, tone and style;
- communicates ideas demonstrating control of expression.

D.

- communicates ideas in texts for some purposes and audiences;
- uses some text structures and language features to communicate ideas;
- demonstrates some understanding of voice, tone and style;
- communicates ideas demonstrating variable control of expression.

E.

- communicates some ideas in texts;
- communicates simple ideas;
- demonstrates limited understanding of voice, tone and style;
- demonstrates limited control of expression.

**Unit 1**

Unit 1 focuses on students comprehending and responding to the ideas and information presented in texts drawn from a range of contexts. Students are taught a variety of strategies to assist comprehension. They read, view and listen to texts to connect, interpret and visualise ideas. They learn how to respond personally and logically to texts, by questioning, using inferential reasoning and determining the importance of content and structure. The unit considers how organisational features of texts help the audience to understand the text. It emphasises the relationships between context, purpose and audience in different language modes and types of texts, and their impact on meaning. Students learn to interact with others in everyday and other contexts. Emphasis is placed on the communication of ideas and information both accurately and imaginatively through a range of modes. Students apply their understanding of language through the creation of texts for different purposes in real or imagined contexts.

By the end of this unit, students:

- comprehend information, ideas and language in texts selected from everyday contexts;
- understand language choices and the likely or intended effect of these choices in a range of texts;
- create oral, written and multimodal texts appropriate for audience and purpose in everyday, community, workplace and social contexts.

Use strategies and skills for comprehending texts including:

- using structural and language features, for example, visual and aural cues to identify main ideas, supporting arguments and evidence;
- predicting meaning using text structures and language features;
- making personal connections with texts;
- questioning texts to draw conclusions.

Consider the ways in which texts communicate ideas, attitudes and values including:

- how social, community and workplace texts are constructed for particular purposes, audiences and contexts;
- the ways text structures and language features are used to influence audiences, for example, image selection in websites, emotive language in speeches or films, stereotypes in video games and vocabulary choices in advertisements;
- the use of narrative features, for example, point of view in film, fiction and video games.

Using information for specific purposes and contexts by:

- locating and extracting information and ideas from texts, for example, skim reading for general sense and scanning for key information;
- understanding how texts are structured to organise information, for example, hyperlinks, chapter headings and indexes;
- using strategies and tools for collecting and processing information, for example, graphic organisers and spreadsheets.

Create a range of texts:

- using appropriate language, content and mode for different purposes and audiences, for example, in everyday, social, community or workplace contexts;
- using text structures and language features to communicate ideas and information in a range of mediums and digital technologies, for example, explaining workplace procedures, using navigation bars to create a web page, and developing a character’s back story;
- developing appropriate vocabulary and using accurate spelling, punctuation and grammar;
- using strategies for planning, recording sources of information and proofreading.

**Unit 2**

Unit 2 focuses on interpreting ideas and arguments in a range of texts and contexts. By analysing text structures and language features and identifying the ideas, arguments and values expressed, students make inferences about the purposes and the intended audiences of texts. Students examine the connections between purpose and structure and how a text’s meaning is influenced by the context in which it is created and received. Students integrate relevant information and ideas from texts to develop their own interpretations. They learn to interact appropriately and persuasively with others in a range of contexts. Analytical and creative skills are developed by focusing on how language selection, imagery, type of text and mode can achieve specific effects. Knowledge and understanding of language and literacy skills are consolidated and demonstrated through the analysis and creation of a range of texts for different purposes, selected from real or imagined contexts.

By the end of this unit, students:

- examine how the structure and language of texts varies in different modes, mediums and contexts;
- understand reasons for language choices and their effects on audiences in a variety of texts and contexts;
- create oral, written and multimodal texts for different purposes using appropriate communication strategies for interaction with others in real or imagined contexts.

Use strategies and skills for comprehending texts including:

- interpreting structural and language features and aural and visual cues used in texts;
- making inferences from content, text structures and language features;
- summarising ideas and information presented in texts;
- identifying similarities and differences between own response to texts and responses of others.

Consider the ways in which context, purpose and audience influence meaning including:

- the ways in which main ideas, values and supporting details are represented in social, community and workplace texts;
- the effects of mediums, types of texts and text structures on audiences, for example, pop-ups on websites, flashbacks in films and intonation in speeches;
- the use of language features such as tone, register and style to influence responses, for example, character monologues in film, fiction and video games.

Using information for specific purposes and contexts by:

- locating and selecting information from a range of sources;
- identifying the relevance and usefulness of each source;
- using different strategies for finding information such as taking notes to summarise and/or paraphrase information.

Create a range of texts:

- using persuasive, visual and literary techniques to engage audiences in a range of modes, mediums and contexts;
- selecting text structures, language features and visual techniques to communicate and represent ideas and information;
- developing appropriate vocabulary and using accurate spelling, punctuation and grammar;
- using strategies for planning, drafting and proofreading, and appropriate referencing.

**Responding to oral, written and multimodal texts**

A.

- analyses how medium, mode and text structure are integrated to achieve particular purposes and effects;
- evaluates how effectively details and examples are used to support main ideas in texts;
- analyses the effectiveness of language choices for different contexts, purposes and audiences;
- evaluates how effectively different ideas and information are presented in texts to persuade audiences.

B.

- analyses how medium, mode and text structure are used in texts to achieve particular purposes;
- analyses how details and examples are used to support the main ideas in texts;
- analyses how the context, purpose and audience of texts influence language choices;
- analyses how different ideas and information are presented in texts to persuade audiences.

C.

- explains the use of medium, mode and text structure in texts;
- distinguishes between and explains the main ideas and supporting details in texts;
- explains how the purpose and context of texts influence language use;
- explains how ideas and information are presented in texts.

D.

- describes elements of medium, mode and text structure in familiar texts;
- describes some main ideas and information in a text;
- identifies the purpose and context of texts and describes some elements of language use.

E.

- identifies some elements of medium, mode and text structure in familiar texts;
- identifies some ideas or information in a text;
- identifies the purpose and context of some texts.

**Creating oral, written and multimodal texts**

A.

- integrates text structures and language features skilfully for different contexts and purposes;
- presents ideas and opinions persuasively in different modes and types of texts;
- selects and synthesises relevant information from different sources;
- communicates ideas demonstrating fluency and consistent control of expression.

B.

- selects text structures and language features effectively for different contexts and purposes;
- presents ideas and opinions effectively in different modes and types of texts;
- selects and integrates relevant information from different sources;
- communicates ideas using clear and controlled expression.

C.

- uses text structures and language features appropriately for different contexts and purposes;
- presents ideas and opinions appropriately in different modes and types of texts;
- selects relevant information from different sources;
- communicates ideas demonstrating appropriate expression.

D.

- uses text structures and language features with some understanding of context and purpose;
- presents some ideas and opinions appropriately;
- selects some information from different sources;
- communicates ideas demonstrating some control of expression.

E.

- uses some text structures and language features with limited understanding of context and purpose;
- presents some ideas and opinions;
- locates some information in texts;
- communicates ideas demonstrating limited control of expression.

**Unit 1**

Unit 1 focuses on investigating how language and culture are interrelated and expressed in a range of contexts. A variety of oral, written and multimodal texts are used to develop understanding of text structures and language features. Students explore the relationship between these structures and features and the context, purpose and audience of texts. The unit will enhance students’ confidence in creating texts for different purposes and across all language modes in both real and imagined contexts. It will broaden their understanding of the sociocultural and sociolinguistic elements of SAE and develop skills for research and further academic study.

By the end of this unit, students:

- communicate ideas and opinions in a range of contexts;
- demonstrate literal and inferential comprehension of information, ideas and language used in texts;
- understand and apply social and cultural references from different contexts;
- plan and create oral, written and multimodal texts appropriate to purpose and audience.

Communication skills and strategies including:

- seeking assistance and asking for clarification in social and academic contexts, negotiating meaning and re-establishing communication, using home language or dialect to clarify understanding;
- using intelligible pronunciation, intonation, stress and rhythm at word and phrase level in texts, for example, interviews and role plays;
- understanding non-verbal cues as related to SAE contexts; for example, conventions of eye contact, gesture, physical space/distance;
- understanding and using some common cultural references, idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms, and culturally accepted politeness conventions and protocols in different contexts;
- using active listening strategies and working collaboratively with others.

Comprehension skills and strategies including:

- predicting the form and content of texts from structural and visual elements and contextual information;
- describing linguistic and structural features of a range of more complex text types including literary and transactional texts;
- distinguishing between fact and opinion, main ideas and supporting details presented in texts;
- defining common cultural references and implied meanings in texts;
- locating suitable information sources, skimming for general meanings and scanning for specific information, note-taking, summarising, paraphrasing and using graphic organisers to collect and collate information;
- using a range of reference texts such as bilingual dictionaries to assist language learning and comprehension;
- using strategies to reflect on and consolidate own learning.

Language and text analysis skills and strategies including:

- describing how different purposes and contexts influence language choices and meaning;
- explaining how language is used to influence or persuade an audience or to express appreciation of an object, a process or a performance;
- describing the effect of register, style and tone on meaning;
- explaining the effects of descriptive language and imagery in texts;
- analysing how language reflects cultural constructions of groupings or ideas such as age, gender, race and identity;
- describing the forms and conventions of texts created in different modes and mediums including visual texts;
- describing similarities in and differences between texts;
- using metalanguage to discuss texts and their composition.

Create a range of texts:

- using appropriate structure and content to communicate ideas and opinions for different purposes and audiences;
- using digital, multimodal and print-based technologies;
- using common language features, for example, subject specific vocabulary, synonyms and antonyms, adjectives and adverbs used to create modality, some nominalisation, common collocations and idioms;
- using description, characterisation, and direct and indirect speech;
- using cohesive devices at sentence, paragraph and whole text level;
- using research skills and strategies, for example, note-taking and note-making, summaries, paraphrasing and graphic organisers to collect and collate information, quoting and referencing appropriately;
- using strategies for planning, rehearsing, editing and refining, including monitoring and correcting spelling, grammar and punctuation, and the use of dictionaries.

**Unit 2**

Unit 2 focuses on analysing and evaluating perspectives and attitudes presented in texts and creating extended texts for a range of contexts. SAE language skills for effective communication in an expanding range of contexts are consolidated. The use of cohesive text structures and language features is developed. The unit focuses on developing planning and editing skills to create extended oral, written and multimodal texts. Attitudes, values and culturally based assumptions within texts are identified, analysed and compared. Strategies for collecting, analysing, organising and presenting ideas and information are refined.

By the end of this unit, students:

- use communication skills to analyse and compare attitudes and values in texts;
- demonstrate literal and inferential comprehension of information, ideas and language used in texts;
- understand personal, social and cultural attitudes and perspectives in a range of texts from different contexts;
- plan, create and refine oral, written and multimodal texts appropriate to context, purposes and audiences.

Communication skills and strategies including:

- initiating, sustaining and concluding interactions in a range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts;
- using intelligible pronunciation, stress, rhythm and intonation at word, phrase and sentence level;
- understanding and using non-verbal cues in a range of formal and informal contexts;
- understanding common cultural references, conceptual metaphors and connotations;
- experimenting with register and tone to create rapport;
- organising and presenting spoken information appropriate to audience and purpose;
- listening, reading and viewing for specific purposes and content.

Comprehension skills and strategies including:

- describing and classifying the form, medium and subject matter of texts;
- describing and explaining characters, settings, plots and sub-plots, themes and narrative point(s) of view in literary texts;
- explaining ideas, issues and arguments presented in non-fiction texts;
- interpreting cultural references and implied meanings in texts;
- locating, selecting and evaluating information sources and synthesising information from these sources;
- using a range of reference texts (including bilingual dictionaries) to assist interpretation and explanation of ideas.

Language and text analysis skills and strategies including:

- describing how the selection of text structures and language features can influence an audience;
- explaining overt and implicit assumptions made in texts, for example, as seen in editorial opinions and stereotypes in advertising;
- explaining the effects of shifts in register, style and tone;
- analysing how point of view shapes audience response;
- analysing connections between texts;
- explaining the visual features of texts and interpreting graphic representations of data;
- using language to express judgement of an object, a process, or a performance;
- using metalanguage to express personal and critical responses to texts.

Create a range of texts:

- using different types of texts to present ideas and opinions for different purposes and audiences in a range of digital, multimodal and print-based technologies;
- using subject-specific vocabulary, nominalisation, and nouns and verbs used to create modality, collocations, idioms and figurative language;
- using a range of cohesive and structural devices;
- using persuasive, descriptive and emotive language as appropriate;
- using experimentation with different registers and tones;
- using research skills and strategies, for example, notes, summaries and graphic organisers to collect, collate and evaluate information, appropriate paraphrasing, quotation, in-text citation and end-of-text referencing;
- using strategies for planning, rehearsing, editing and refining, including monitoring and correcting spelling, grammar and punctuation, and the use of dictionaries.

**Responding to oral, written and multimodal texts**

A.

- analyses main ideas and supporting details in texts to comprehend literal and inferential meanings;
- analyses ways in which language choices and type of text are created to suit particular purposes and contexts;
- evaluates the effectiveness of text structures and language features in texts, in persuading and influencing audiences;
- analyses social and cultural references in texts and evaluates their effects and implications.

B.

- analyses main ideas and supporting details in texts to identify literal and inferential meanings;
- analyses how purpose and context shape language choices and the type of texts that are created;
- analyses how text structures and language features are used to persuade audiences in familiar and some unfamiliar texts;
- analyses social and cultural references in texts and explains their effects.

C.

- explains literal meanings and main ideas in texts
- explains how purpose and context shape the type of texts that are created;
- explains how text structures and language features are used to persuade audiences in familiar texts;
- explains some social and cultural references in texts.

D.

- describes literal meanings and main ideas in texts;
- describes the purpose and context of texts;
- describes aspects of text structures and language features used in familiar and some unfamiliar texts;
- identifies some social or cultural references in texts.

E.

- locates some information in texts;
- identifies the purpose or context of texts;
- identifies some aspects of text structures and language features used in familiar texts;
- identifies obvious social and cultural references in texts.

**Creating oral, written and multimodal texts**

A.

- communicates ideas and information clearly and concisely in oral interactions;
- presents ideas and opinions selecting relevant evidence and examples to support a point of view;
- structures texts effectively for contexts, purposes and audiences in different modes and mediums;
- uses language features and conventions confidently and with sustained control of expression.

B.

- communicates ideas and information competently in oral interactions;
- presents ideas and opinions selecting clear examples to support a point of view;
- structures texts appropriately for contexts, purposes and audiences in different modes and mediums;
- uses language features and conventions with clarity and control of expression.

C.

- communicates ideas and information in oral interactions;
- presents ideas and opinions using some examples;
- structures texts for familiar and some unfamiliar contexts, purposes and audiences in different modes and mediums;
- uses language features and conventions with some consistency and accuracy.

D.

- communicates some ideas and information in oral interactions;
- presents some ideas and opinions;
- structures texts for some familiar contexts, purposes or audiences in different modes and mediums;
- uses simple language features and conventions with some accuracy.

E.

- communicates ideas or information in some familiar contexts;
- presents simple ideas or opinions;
- reproduces some text structures in different modes and mediums;
- uses simple language features or conventions with limited accuracy.

**Unit 1**

Unit 1 develops students’ knowledge and understanding of different ways of reading and creating literary texts drawn from a widening range of historical, social, cultural and personal contexts. Students analyse the relationships between language, text, contexts, individual points of view and response. This unit develops knowledge and understanding of different literary conventions and storytelling traditions and their relationships with audiences. A range of literary forms is considered in fiction and non-fiction texts; for example, oral, written, multimodal, verse, prose and film. The significance of ideas and the distinctive qualities of texts are analysed through detailed textual study. Through the creation of analytical responses, students frame consistent arguments that are substantiated by relevant evidence. In the creation of imaginative texts, students explore and experiment with aspects of style and form.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand how language, structure and stylistic choices are used in different literary forms;
- examine the ways in which contexts shape how a text is received and responded to by audiences;
- create oral, written and multimodal responses that explore and draw on the structure and style of literary texts.

Investigate and reflect on different ways of reading literary texts including:

- the degree to which individual points of view, experiences and contexts shape responses to texts;
- how mode, medium and form shape responses to texts;
- the differences between initial personal responses and more studied and complex responses;
- how responses of readers and viewers can range from empathetic to critical.

Analyse distinctive features in literary texts including:

- how text structures, language features and stylistic elements shape meaning and create particular effects and nuances, for example, through allusions, paradoxes and ambiguities;
- different points of view represented in texts, for example, those of characters, narrators and the implied author;
- approaches to characterisation, for example, the inclusion of archetypal figures, authorial intrusion, the dramatisation of a character’s inner life, and the use of interior monologue;
- different narrative approaches, for example, eye-witness accounts, multiple narrators, the unreliable narrator and the omniscient narrator;
- the use of figurative language and rhetorical devices to represent concepts and shape arguments, for example, symbolism, metonymy, types of irony, patterns of imagery;
- the use of sound and visual devices in literary texts to create particular effects, for example, assonance, prosody, rhyme , animation and voice-over narration.

Create analytical texts:

- structuring arguments and points of view using relevant textual evidence;
- using appropriate linguistic, stylistic and critical terminology to respond to texts;
- using stylistic features to craft and articulate points of view;
- experimenting with different modes, mediums and forms.

Create imaginative texts:

- developing connections between real and imagined experiences;
- drawing on knowledge and understanding of storytelling, style and the structure of texts;
- experimenting with aspects of style and form to achieve deliberate effects;
- reflecting on familiar and emerging literary forms for particular audiences and purposes.

**Unit 2**

Unit 2 develops student knowledge and understanding of the ways literary texts connect with each other. Drawing on a range of language and literary experiences, students consider the relationships between texts, genres, authors, audiences and contexts. Ideas, language and structure of different texts are compared and contrasted. Connections between texts are established by analysing their similarities and differences, for example, through intertextuality and other patterns and allusions evident in ideas, language used and forms of texts. Students create analytical responses that are evidence-based and convincing. By experimenting with text structures and language features, students understand how imaginative texts are informed by analytical responses.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand how structural and stylistic choices and language patterns shape meaning in literary texts;
- investigate the interrelationships between texts, audiences and contexts;
- create oral, written and multimodal responses that draw on the conventions, connections and patterns in texts.

Analyse and reflect on the relationships between authors, texts and contexts including:

- the ways in which texts are influenced by other texts and by contexts;
- the relationship between conventions of genre, audience expectations, and interpretations of texts;
- how the choice and combinations of mode, medium and form transform texts;
- the ways in which informed reading influences interpretation of texts.

Compare and evaluate the form, language and content of literary texts including:

- the ways in which text structures, language features and stylistic choices provide a framework for audiences’ expectations, responses and interpretations;
- the ways in which texts resemble and refer to other texts, for example, through parody, imitation, appropriation and transformation, and the ways in which adaptations of earlier texts allow new insights into original texts;
- how aspects of literary texts have been appropriated into popular culture, for example, through the use of iconic literary situations, symbols or characters;
- the ways in which different literary forms may evolve, for example, the development of digital storytelling;
- the use of literary techniques, for example, poetic, dramatic and narrative structure and devices;
- the use of a combination of sound and visual devices in literary texts, for example, soundtracks, cinematography, iconography.

Create analytical texts:

- organising points of view and arguments in different ways, for example, in essays, reviews and visual presentations;
- using appropriate linguistic, stylistic and critical terminology to compare and contrast texts;
- selecting appropriate argument and evidence to support points of view;
- experimenting with different modes, mediums and forms.

Create imaginative texts:

- integrating real and imagined experiences by selecting and adapting particular aspects of texts to create new texts;
- using analysis of literary texts to inform imaginative response;
- transforming texts studied in one medium or genre to another for different audiences and purposes;
- reflecting on the significance and effects of variations to texts.

**Responding to oral, written and multimodal texts**

A.

- critically analyses how relationships between texts and contexts shape responses to texts;
- evaluates how effectively language and stylistic features are used together in texts to influence meanings and interpretations;
- critically analyses how effectively literary conventions, modes and mediums are integrated to achieve literary effects;
- evaluates the effectiveness of literary transformations for different contexts, purposes and audiences.

B.

- analyses how relationships between texts and contexts shape responses to texts;
- evaluates how language and stylistic features are used together in texts to influence meanings and interpretations;
- analyses how literary conventions, modes and mediums are used together to achieve literary effects;
- analyses how and explains why literary texts are transformed for different contexts, purposes and audiences.

C.

- explains relationships between texts and contexts;
- explains how language and stylistic features used in texts influence meanings and interpretations;
- explains how literary conventions, modes and mediums are used to achieve literary effects;
- explains how and why literary texts can be transformed for different contexts, purposes and audiences.

D.

- describes relationships between texts and contexts;
- describes language and stylistic features used in texts;
- describes how literary conventions, modes and mediums are used to create texts;
- describes how literary texts can be transformed for different contexts, purposes and audiences.

E.

- identifies relationships between texts or contexts;
- identifies some aspects of language or stylistic features used in texts;
- describes some aspects of literary conventions, modes and mediums used to create texts;
- identifies how literary texts can be transformed.

**Creating oral, written and multimodal texts**

A.

- synthesises language and stylistic features effectively for imaginative and analytical purposes;
- presents comprehensive analytical responses which are compellingly argued and substantiated by apt textual references;
- presents imaginative responses which are refined in form and style and draw on appreciation of literary texts;
- demonstrates fluent control of expression in different modes and mediums.

B.

- combines language and stylistic features appropriately for imaginative and analytical purposes;
- presents analytical responses which are logically argued and substantiated by effective textual references;
- presents imaginative responses which are effective in form and style and draw on appreciation of literary texts;
- demonstrates effective control of expression in different modes and mediums.

C.

- selects language and stylistic features for imaginative and analytical purposes;
- presents analytical responses comprising clear argument and relevant textual references;
- presents imaginative responses which are coherent in form and style and draw on literary texts;
- demonstrates control of expression in different modes and mediums.

D.

- uses some language and stylistic features for imaginative and analytical purposes;
- presents analytical responses comprising some argument and textual reference;
- presents imaginative responses using some elements of form and style drawn from literary texts;
- demonstrates some control of expression in different modes and mediums.

E.

- uses some language and stylistic features;
- presents limited analytical responses;
- presents limited imaginative responses;
- demonstrates limited control of expression in different modes and mediums.

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

Mathematics is the study of order, relation and pattern. From its origins in counting and measuring, it has evolved in highly sophisticated and elegant ways to become the language used to describe much of the physical world. Statistics is the study of ways of collecting and extracting information from data and of methods of using that information to describe and make predictions about the behaviour of aspects of the real world, in the face of uncertainty. Together, mathematics and statistics provide a framework for thinking and a means of communication that is powerful, logical, concise and precise.

Essential Mathematics focuses on enabling students to use mathematics effectively, efficiently and critically to make informed decisions in their daily lives. Essential Mathematics provides students with the mathematical knowledge, skills and understanding to solve problems in real contexts, in a range of workplace, personal, further learning and community settings. This subject offers students the opportunity to prepare for post-school options of employment and further training.

For all content areas of Essential Mathematics, the proficiency strands of understanding, fluency, problem solving and reasoning from the F–10 curriculum are still applicable and should be inherent in students’ learning of the subject. Each of these proficiencies is essential, and all are mutually reinforcing. For all content areas, practice allows students to develop fluency in their skills. Students will encounter opportunities for problem solving, such as finding the volume of a solid so that the amount of liquid held in a container can be compared with what is written on the label, or finding the interest on a sum of money to enable comparison between different types of loans. In Essential Mathematics, reasoning includes critically interpreting and analysing information represented through graphs, tables and other statistical representations to make informed decisions. The ability to transfer mathematical skills between contexts is a vital part of learning in this subject. For example, familiarity with the concept of a rate enables students to solve a wide range of practical problems, such as fuel consumption, travel times, interest payments, taxation, and population growth.

The content of the Essential Mathematics subject is designed to be taught within contexts that are relevant to the needs of the particular student cohort. The skills and understandings developed throughout the subject will be further enhanced and reinforced through presentation in an area of interest to the students.

**Aims**

Essential Mathematics aims to develop students’:

- understanding of concepts and techniques drawn from mathematics and statistics;
- ability to solve applied problems using concepts and techniques drawn from mathematics and statistics;
- reasoning and interpretive skills in mathematical and statistical contexts;
- capacity to communicate in a concise and systematic manner using appropriate mathematical and statistical language;
- capacity to choose and use technology appropriately.

**Senior secondary Mathematics subjects**

The Senior Secondary Australian Curriculum: Mathematics consists of four subjects in mathematics, with each subject organised into four units. The subjects are differentiated, each focusing on a pathway that will meet the learning needs of a particular group of senior secondary students.

Essential Mathematics focuses on using mathematics effectively, efficiently and critically to make informed decisions. It provides students with the mathematical knowledge, skills and understanding to solve problems in real contexts for a range of workplace, personal, further learning and community settings. This subject provides the opportunity for students to prepare for post-school options of employment and further training.

General Mathematics focuses on using the techniques of discrete mathematics to solve problems in contexts that include financial modelling, network analysis, route and project planning, decision making, and discrete growth and decay. It provides an opportunity to analyse and solve a wide range of geometrical problems in areas such as measurement, scaling, triangulation and navigation. It also provides opportunities to develop systematic strategies based on the statistical investigation process for answering statistical questions that involve comparing groups, investigating associations and analysing time series.

Mathematical Methods focuses on the development of the use of calculus and statistical analysis. The study of calculus in Mathematical Methods provides a basis for an understanding of the physical world involving rates of change, and includes the use of functions, their derivatives and integrals, in modelling physical processes. The study of statistics in Mathematical Methods develops the ability to describe and analyse phenomena involving uncertainty and variation.

Specialist Mathematics provides opportunities, beyond those presented in Mathematical Methods, to develop rigorous mathematical arguments and proofs, and to use mathematical models more extensively. Specialist Mathematics contains topics in functions and calculus that build on and deepen the ideas presented in Mathematical Methods as well as demonstrate their application in many areas. Specialist Mathematics also extends understanding and knowledge of probability and statistics and introduces the topics of vectors, complex numbers and matrices. Specialist Mathematics is the only mathematics subject that has been designed to not be taken as a stand-alone subject.

**Unit 1**

This unit has three topics: ‘Consumer arithmetic’, ‘Algebra and matrices’, and ‘Shape and measurement’.

‘Consumer arithmetic’ reviews the concepts of rate and percentage change in the context of earning and managing money, and provides a fertile ground for the use of spreadsheets.

‘Algebra and matrices’ continues the F-10 study of algebra and introduces the new topic of matrices.

‘Shape and measurement’ builds on and extends the knowledge and skills students developed in the F-10 curriculum with the concept of similarity and associated calculations involving simple and compound geometric shapes. The emphasis in this topic is on applying these skills in a range of practical contexts, including those involving three-dimensional shapes.

Classroom access to the technology necessary to support the computational aspects of the topics in this unit is assumed.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the concepts and techniques introduced in consumer arithmetic, algebra and matrices, and shape and measurement;
- apply reasoning skills and solve practical problems arising in consumer arithmetic, algebra and matrices, and shape and measurement;
- communicate their arguments and strategies, when solving problems, using appropriate mathematical language;
- interpret mathematical information, and ascertain the reasonableness of their solutions to problems;
- choose and use technology appropriately and efficiently.

**Topic 1: Consumer arithmetic**

Applications of rates and percentages:

- review rates and percentages;
- calculate weekly or monthly wage from an annual salary, wages from an hourly rate including situations involving overtime and other allowances and earnings based on commission or piecework;
- calculate payments based on government allowances and pensions;
- prepare a personal budget for a given income taking into account fixed and discretionary spending;
- compare prices and values using the unit cost method;
- apply percentage increase or decrease in various contexts; for example, determining the impact of inflation on costs and wages over time, calculating percentage mark-ups and discounts, calculating GST, calculating profit or loss in absolute and percentage terms, and calculating simple and compound interest;
- use currency exchange rates to determine the cost in Australian dollars of purchasing a given amount of a foreign currency, such as US$1500, or the value of a given amount of foreign currency when converted to Australian dollars, such as the value of €2050 in Australian dollars;
- calculate the dividend paid on a portfolio of shares, given the percentage dividend or dividend paid per share, for each share; and compare share values by calculating a price-to-earnings ratio.

Use of spreadsheets:

Use a spreadsheet to display examples of the above computations when multiple or repeated computations are required; for example, preparing a wage-sheet displaying the weekly earnings of workers in a fast food store where hours of employment and hourly rates of pay may differ, preparing a budget, or investigating the potential cost of owning and operating a car over a year.

**Topic 2: Algebra and matrices**

Linear and non-linear expressions:

- substitute numerical values into linear algebraic and simple non-linear algebraic expressions, and evaluate;
- find the value of the subject of the formula, given the values of the other pronumerals in the formula;
- use a spreadsheet or an equivalent technology to construct a table of values from a formula, including two-by-two tables for formulas with two variable quantities; for example, a table displaying the body mass index (BMI) of people of different weights and heights.

Matrices and matrix arithmetic:

- use matrices for storing and displaying information that can be presented in rows and columns; for example, databases, links in social or road networks;
- recognise different types of matrices (row, column, square, zero, identity) and determine their size;
- perform matrix addition, subtraction, multiplication by a scalar, and matrix multiplication, including determining the power of a matrix using technology with matrix arithmetic capabilities when appropriate;
- use matrices, including matrix products and powers of matrices, to model and solve problems; for example, costing or pricing problems, squaring a matrix to determine the number of ways pairs of people in a communication network can communicate with each other via a third person.

**Topic 3: Shape and measurement**

Pythagoras’ Theorem:

Review Pythagoras’ Theorem and use it to solve practical problems in two dimensions and for simple applications in three dimensions.

Mensuration:

- solve practical problems requiring the calculation of perimeters and areas of circles, sectors of circles, triangles, rectangles, parallelograms and composites;
- calculate the volumes of standard three-dimensional objects such as spheres, rectangular prisms, cylinders, cones, pyramids and composites in practical situations; for example, the volume of water contained in a swimming pool;
- calculate the surface areas of standard three-dimensional objects such as spheres, rectangular prisms, cylinders, cones, pyramids and composites in practical situations; for example, the surface area of a cylindrical food container.

Similar figures and scale factors:

- review the conditions for similarity of two-dimensional figures including similar triangles;
- use the scale factor for two similar figures to solve linear scaling problems;
- obtain measurements from scale drawings, such as maps or building plans, to solve problems;
- obtain a scale factor and use it to solve scaling problems involving the calculation of the areas of similar figures;
- obtain a scale factor and use it to solve scaling problems involving the calculation of surface areas and volumes of similar solids.

**Unit 2**

This unit has three topics: ‘Univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process’, ‘Linear equations and their graphs’; and ‘Applications of trigonometry’.

‘ Univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process’ develops students’ ability to organise and summarise univariate data in the context of conducting a statistical investigation.

‘Linear equations and their graphs’ uses linear equations and straight-line graphs, as well as linear-piecewise and step graphs, to model and analyse practical situations.

‘Applications of trigonometry’ extends students’ knowledge of trigonometry to solve practical problems involving non-right-angled triangles in both two and three dimensions, including problems involving the use of angles of elevation and depression and bearings in navigation.

Classroom access to the technology necessary to support the graphical, computational and statistical aspects of this unit is assumed.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the concepts and techniques in univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process, linear equations and their graphs, and applications of trigonometry;
- apply reasoning skills and solve practical problems in univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process, linear equations and their graphs, and the applications of trigonometry;
- implement the statistical investigation process in contexts requiring the analysis of univariate data;
- communicate their arguments and strategies, when solving mathematical and statistical problems, using appropriate mathematical or statistical language;
- interpret mathematical and statistical information, and ascertain the reasonableness of their solutions to problems and their answers to statistical questions;
- choose and use technology appropriately and efficiently.

**Topic 1: Univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process**

The statistical investigation process:

Review the statistical investigation process; for example, identifying a problem and posing a statistical question, collecting or obtaining data, analysing the data, interpreting and communicating the results.

Making sense of data relating to a single statistical variable:

- classify a categorical variable as ordinal, such as income level (high, medium, low), or nominal, such as place of birth (Australia, overseas), and use tables and bar charts to organise and display the data;
- classify a numerical variable as discrete, such as the number of rooms in a house, or continuous, such as the temperature in degrees Celsius;
- with the aid of an appropriate graphical display (chosen from dot plot, stem plot, bar chart or histogram), describe the distribution of a numerical dataset in terms of modality (uni or multimodal), shape (symmetric versus positively or negatively skewed), location and spread and outliers, and interpret this information in the context of the data;
- determine the mean and standard deviation of a dataset and use these statistics as measures of location and spread of a data distribution, being aware of their limitations.

Comparing data for a numerical variable across two or more groups:

- construct and use parallel box plots (including the use of the ‘Q1 – 1.5 x IQR’ and ‘Q3 + 1.5 x IQR’ criteria for identifying possible outliers) to compare groups in terms of location (median), spread (IQR and range) and outliers and to interpret and communicate the differences observed in the context of the data;
- compare groups on a single numerical variable using medians, means, IQRs, ranges or standard deviations, as appropriate; interpret the differences observed in the context of the data; and report the findings in a systematic and concise manner;
- implement the statistical investigation process to answer questions that involve comparing the data for a numerical variable across two or more groups; for example, are Year 11 students the fittest in the school?

**Topic 2: Applications of trigonometry**

Applications of trigonometry:

- review the use of the trigonometric ratios to find the length of an unknown side or the size of an unknown angle in a right-angled triangle;
- determine the area of a triangle given two sides and an included angle by using the rule Area=12absinC

12absinC, or given three sides by using Heron’s rule, and solve related practical problems; - solve problems involving non-right-angled triangles using the sine rule (ambiguous case excluded) and the cosine rule;
- solve practical problems involving the trigonometry of right-angled and non-right-angled triangles, including problems involving angles of elevation and depression and the use of bearings in navigation.

**Topic 3: Linear equations and their graphs**

Linear equations:

- identify and solve linear equations;
- develop a linear formula from a word description;
- Straight-line graphs and their applications:
- construct straight-line graphs both with and without the aid of technology;
- determine the slope and intercepts of a straight-line graph from both its equation and its plot;
- interpret, in context, the slope and intercept of a straight-line graph used to model and analyse a practical situation;
- construct and analyse a straight-line graph to model a given linear relationship; for example, modelling the cost of filling a fuel tank of a car against the number of litres of petrol required.

Simultaneous linear equations and their applications:

- solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations, using technology when appropriate;
- solve practical problems that involve finding the point of intersection of two straight-line graphs; for example, determining the break-even point where cost and revenue are represented by linear equations.

Piece-wise linear graphs and step graphs:

- sketch piece-wise linear graphs and step graphs, using technology when appropriate;
- interpret piece-wise linear and step graphs used to model practical situations; for example, the tax paid as income increases, the change in the level of water in a tank over time when water is drawn off at different intervals and for different periods of time, the charging scheme for sending parcels of different weights through the post.

**Concepts and Techniques**

A.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of consumer arithmetic, algebra and matrices, linear equations, geometry and trigonometry, and statistics, in routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- selects and applies techniques in mathematics and statistics to solve routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- develops, selects and applies mathematical and statistical models to solve routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- uses digital technologies effectively to graph, display and organise mathematical and statistical information to solve a range of routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts.

B.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of consumer arithmetic, algebra and matrices, linear equations, geometry and trigonometry, and statistics, in routine and non-routine problems;
- selects and applies techniques in mathematics and statistics to solve routine and non-routine problems;
- selects and applies mathematical and statistical models to routine and non-routine problems ;
- uses digital technologies appropriately to graph, display and organise mathematical and statistical information to solve a range of routine and non-routine problems.

C.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of consumer arithmetic, algebra and matrices, linear equations, geometry and trigonometry, and statistics, that apply to routine problems;
- selects and applies techniques in mathematics and statistics to solve routine problems;
- applies mathematical and statistical models to routine problems;
- uses digital technologies to graph, display and organise mathematical and statistical information to solve routine problems.

D.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of consumer arithmetic, algebra and matrices, linear equations, geometry and trigonometry, and statistics;
- uses simple techniques in mathematics and statistics in routine problems;
- demonstrates familiarity with mathematical and statistical models;
- uses digital technologies to display some mathematical and statistical information in routine problems.

E.

- demonstrates limited familiarity with simple concepts of consumer arithmetic, algebra and matrices, linear equations, geometry and trigonometry, and statistics;
- uses simple techniques in a structured context;
- demonstrates limited familiarity with mathematical or statistical models;
- uses digital technologies for arithmetic calculations and to display limited mathematical and statistical information.

**Reasoning and Communication**

A.

- represents mathematical and statistical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- communicates mathematical and statistical judgments and arguments which are succinct and reasoned using appropriate language;
- interprets the solutions to routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- explains the reasonableness of the results and solutions to routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- identifies and explains the validity and limitations of models used when developing solutions to routine and non-routine problems.

B.

- represents mathematical and statistical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine and non-routine problems;
- communicates mathematical and statistical judgments and arguments which are clear and reasoned using appropriate language;
- interprets the solutions to routine and non-routine problems;
- explains the reasonableness of results and solutions to routine and non-routine problems;
- identifies and explains limitations of models used when developing solutions to routine problems.

C.

- represents mathematical and statistical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine problems;
- communicates mathematical and statistical arguments using appropriate language;
- interprets the solutions to routine problems;
- describes the reasonableness of results and solutions to routine problems;
- identifies limitations of models used when developing solutions to routine problems.

D.

- represents simple mathematical and statistical information in numerical, graphical or symbolic form in routine problems;
- communicates simple mathematical and statistical information using appropriate language ;
- describes solutions to routine problems;
- describes the appropriateness of the results of calculations;
- identifies limitations of simple model.

E.

- represents simple mathematical or statistical information in a structured context;
- communicates simple mathematical or statistical information ;
- identifies solutions to routine problems;
- demonstrates limited familiarity with the appropriateness of the results of calculations;
- identifies simple models.

**Unit 1**

This unit provides students with the mathematical skills and understanding to solve problems relating to calculations, applications of measurement, the use of formulas to find an unknown quantity, and the interpretation of graphs. Teachers are encouraged to apply the content of the four topics in this unit – ‘Calculations, percentages and rates’, ‘Measurement’, ‘Algebra’ and ‘Graphs’ – in contexts which are meaningful and of interest to their students. A variety of approaches can be used to achieve this purpose. Two possible contexts which may be used are Mathematics and foods and Earning and managing money. However, as these contexts may not be relevant to all students, teachers are encouraged to find suitable contexts relevant to their particular student cohort.

It is assumed that an extensive range of technological applications and techniques will be used in teaching this unit. The ability to choose when and when not to use some form of technology, and the ability to work flexibly with technology, are important skills.

By the end of this unit students:

- understand the concepts and techniques in calculations, measurement, algebra and graphs;
- apply reasoning skills and solve practical problems in calculations, measurement, algebra and graphs;
- communicate their arguments and strategies when solving problems using appropriate mathematical language;
- interpret mathematical information and ascertain the reasonableness of their solutions to problems.

**Topic 1: Calculations, percentages and rates**

Calculations:

- solve practical problems requiring basic number operations;
- apply arithmetic operations according to their correct order;
- ascertain the reasonableness of answers to arithmetic calculations;
- use leading-digit approximation to obtain estimates of calculations;
- use a calculator for multi-step calculations;
- check results of calculations for accuracy;
- recognise the significance of place value after the decimal point;
- evaluate decimal fractions to the required number of decimal places;
- round up or round down numbers to the required number of decimal places;
- apply approximation strategies for calculations.

Percentages:

- calculate a percentage of a given amount;
- determine one amount expressed as a percentage of another;
- apply percentage increases and decreases in situations; for example, mark-ups, discounts and GST.

Rates:

- identify common usage of rates; for example, km/h as a rate to describe speed, beats/minute as a rate to describe pulse;
- convert units of rates occurring in practical situations to solve problems;
- use rates to make comparisons; for example, using unit prices to compare best buys, comparing heart rates after exercise.

**Topic 2: Measurement**

Linear measure:

- use metric units of length, their abbreviations, conversions between them, and appropriate levels of accuracy and choice of units;
- estimate lengths;
- convert between metric units of length and other length units;
- calculate perimeters of familiar shapes, including triangles, squares, rectangles, and composites of these.

Area measure:

- use metric units of area, their abbreviations, conversions between them, and appropriate choices of units;
- estimate the areas of different shapes;
- convert between metric units of area and other area units;
- calculate areas of rectangles and triangles.

Mass:

- use metric units of mass, their abbreviations, conversions between them, and appropriate choices of units;
- estimate the mass of different objects.

Volume and capacity:

- use metric units of volume, their abbreviations, conversions between them, and appropriate choices of units;
- understand the relationship between volume and capacity;
- estimate volume and capacity of various objects;
- calculate the volume of objects, such as cubes and rectangular and triangular prisms.

Units of energy:

- use units of energy to describe consumption of electricity, such as kilowatt hours;
- use units of energy used for foods, including calories;
- use units of energy to describe the amount of energy in activity, such as kilojoules;
- convert from one unit of energy to another.

**Topic 3: Algebra**

Single substitution:

Substitute numerical values into algebraic expressions.

General substitution:

Substitute given values for the other pronumerals in a mathematical formula to find the value of the subject of the formula.

**Topic 4: Graphs**

Reading and interpreting graphs:

- interpret information presented in graphs, such as conversion graphs, line graphs, step graphs, column graphs and picture graphs;
- interpret information presented in two-way tables;
- discuss and interpret graphs found in the media and in factual texts.

Drawing graphs:

- determine which type of graph is best used to display a dataset;
- use spreadsheets to tabulate and graph data;
- draw a line graph to represent any data that demonstrate a continuous change, such as hourly temperature.

**Unit 2**

This unit provides students with the mathematical skills and understanding to solve problems related to representing and comparing data, percentages, rates and ratios, the mathematics of finance, and time and motion. Teachers are encouraged to apply the content of the four topics in this unit – ‘Representing and comparing data’, ‘Percentages’, ‘Rates and ratios’ and ‘Time and motion’ – in a context which is meaningful and of interest to their students. A variety of approaches can be used to achieve this purpose. Two possible contexts which may be used are Mathematics and cars and Mathematics and independent living. However, as these contexts may not be relevant to all students, teachers are encouraged to find suitable contexts relevant to their particular student cohort.

It is assumed that an extensive range of technological applications and techniques will be used in teaching this unit. The ability to choose when and when not to use some form of technology, and the ability to work flexibly with technology, are important skills.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the concepts and techniques used in representing and comparing data, percentages, rates and ratios, and time and motion;
- apply reasoning skills and solve practical problems in representing and comparing data, percentages, rates and ratios, and time and motion;
- communicate their arguments and strategies when solving mathematical and statistical problems using appropriate mathematical or statistical language;
- interpret mathematical and statistical information and ascertain the reasonableness of their solutions to problems.

**Topic 1: Representing and comparing data**

Classifying data:

- identify examples of categorical data;
- identify examples of numerical data.

Data presentation and interpretation:

- display categorical data in tables and column graphs;
- display numerical data as frequency distributions, dot plots, stem and leaf plots, and histograms;
- recognise and identify outliers;
- compare the suitability of different methods of data presentation in real-world contexts.

Summarising and interpreting data:

- identify the mode;
- calculate measures of central tendency, the arithmetic mean and the median;
- investigate the suitability of measures of central tendency in various real-world contexts;
- investigate the effect of outliers on the mean and the median;
- calculate and interpret quartiles, deciles and percentiles;
- use informal ways of describing spread, such as spread out/dispersed, tightly packed, clusters, gaps, more/less dense regions, outliers;
- calculate and interpret statistical measures of spread, such as the range, interquartile range and standard deviation;
- investigate real-world examples from the media illustrating inappropriate uses, or misuses, of measures of central tendency and spread.

Comparing data sets:

- compare back-to-back stem plots for different data-sets;
- complete a five number summary for different datasets;
- construct box plots using a five number summary;
- compare the characteristics of the shape of histograms using symmetry, skewness and bimodality.

**Topic 2: Percentages**

Percentage calculations:

- review calculating a percentage of a given amount;
- review one amount expressed as a percentage of another.

Applications of percentages:

- determine the overall change in a quantity following repeated percentage changes; for example, an increase of 10% followed by a decrease of 10%;
- calculate simple interest for different rates and periods.

**Topic 3: Rates and ratios**

Ratios:

- demonstrate an understanding of the elementary ideas and notation of ratio;
- understand the relationship between fractions and ratio;
- express a ratio in simplest form;
- find the ratio of two quantities;
- divide a quantity in a given ratio;
- use ratio to describe simple scales.

Rates:

- review identifying common usage of rates such as km/h;
- convert between units for rates; for example, km/h to m/s, mL/min to L/h;
- complete calculations with rates, including solving problems involving direct proportion in terms of rate.
- use rates to make comparisons;
- use rates to determine costs; for example, calculating the cost of a tradesman using rates per hour, call-out fees.

**Topic 4: Time and motion**

Time:

- use units of time, conversions between units, fractional, digital and decimal representations;
- represent time using 12-hour and 24-hour clocks;
- calculate time intervals, such as time between, time ahead, time behind;
- interpret timetables, such as bus, train and ferry timetables;
- use several timetables and electronic technologies to plan the most time-efficient routes;
- interpret complex timetables, such as tide charts, sunrise charts and moon phases;
- compare the time taken to travel a specific distance with various modes of transport;

Distance:

- use scales to find distances, such as on maps; for example, road maps, street maps, bushwalking maps, online maps and cadastral maps;
- optimise distances through trial-and-error and systematic methods; for example, shortest path, routes to visit all towns, and routes to use all roads.

Speed:

- identify the appropriate units for different activities, such as walking, running, swimming and flying;
- calculate speed, distance or time using the formula speed = distance/time;
- calculate the time or costs for a journey from distances estimated from maps;
- interpret distance-versus-time graphs;
- calculate and interpret average speed; for example, a 4-hour trip covering 250 km.

**Concepts and Techniques**

A.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of measurement, financial mathematics and statistics in routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- selects and applies techniques in measurement, financial mathematics and statistics to solve routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- uses digital technologies effectively to display and organise mathematical and statistical information to solve routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts.

B.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of measurement, financial mathematics and statistics in routine and non-routine problems;
- selects and applies techniques in measurement, financial mathematics and statistics to solve routine and non-routine problems;
- uses digital technologies appropriately to display and organise mathematical and statistical information to solve routine and non-routine problems.

C.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of measurement, financial mathematics and statistics in routine problems;
- selects and applies techniques in measurement, financial mathematics and statistics to solve routine problems;
- uses digital technologies to display and organise mathematical and statistical information to solve routine problems.

D.

- demonstrates familiarity with concepts of measurement, financial mathematics and statistics;
- uses simple techniques in measurement, financial mathematics and statistics;
- uses digital technologies to display and organise simple mathematical and statistical information.

E.

- demonstrates limited familiarity with concepts of measurement, financial mathematics or statistics;
- uses simple techniques in a structures context;
- uses digital technologies for arithmetic calculations.

**Reasoning and Communication**

A.

- represents mathematical and statistical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- communicates clear and reasoned observations and judgments using appropriate mathematical and statistical language;
- interprets solutions to routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- explains the reasonableness of results and solutions to routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts.

B.

- represents mathematical and statistical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine and non-routine problems;
- communicates clear observations and judgments using appropriate mathematical and statistical language;
- interprets solutions to routine and non-routine problems;
- explains the reasonableness of results and solutions to routine and non-routine problems.

C.

- represents mathematical and statistical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine problems;
- communicates observations and judgments using appropriate mathematical and statistical language;
- interprets solutions to routine problems;
- describes the reasonableness of results and solutions to routine problems.

D.

- represents simple mathematical and statistical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form;
- describes observations using mathematical and statistical language;
- describes solutions to routine problems;
- describes the appropriateness of the results of calculations.

E.

- represents simple mathematical and statistical information in a structured context;
- describes simple observations;
- identifies solutions to routine problems;.
- demonstrates limited familiarity with the appropriateness of the results of calculations.

**Unit 1**

This unit begins with a review of the basic algebraic concepts and techniques required for a successful introduction to the study of calculus. The basic trigonometric functions are then introduced. Simple relationships between variable quantities are reviewed, and these are used to introduce the key concepts of a function and its graph. The study of inferential statistics begins in this unit with a review of the fundamentals of probability and the introduction of the concepts of conditional probability and independence. Access to technology to support the computational aspects of these topics is assumed.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the concepts and techniques in algebra, functions, graphs, trigonometric functions and probability;
- solve problems using algebra, functions, graphs, trigonometric functions and probability;
- apply reasoning skills in the context of algebra, functions, graphs, trigonometric functions and probability;
- interpret and evaluate mathematical information and ascertain the reasonableness of solutions to problems;
- communicate their arguments and strategies when solving problems.

**Topic 1: Functions and graphs**

Lines and linear relationships:

- determine the coordinates of the midpoint of two points;
- examine examples of direct proportion and linearly related variables;
- recognise features of the graph of y=mx+c, including its linear nature, its intercepts and its slope or gradient;
- find the equation of a straight line given sufficient information; parallel and perpendicular lines;
- solve linear equations.

Review of quadratic relationships:

- examine examples of quadratically related variables;
- recognise features of the graphs of y=x
^{2}, y=a(x−b)^{2}+c and y=a(x−b)(x−c), including their parabolic nature, turning points, axes of symmetry and intercepts; - solve quadratic equations using the quadratic formula and by completing the square;
- find the equation of a quadratic given sufficient information;
- find turning points and zeros of quadratics and understand the role of the discriminant;
- recognise features of the graph of the general quadratic y=ax
^{2}+bx+c;

Inverse proportion:

- examine examples of inverse proportion;
- recognise features of the graphs of y= 1/x and y=a/x-b, including their hyperbolic shapes, and their asymptotes.

Powers and polynomials:

- recognise features of the graphs of y=x
^{n }for n∈N, n=−1 and n=½, including shape, and behaviour as x→∞ and x→−∞; - factorise cubic polynomials in cases where a linear factor is easily obtained;
- solve cubic equations using technology, and algebraically in cases where a linear factor is easily obtained.

Graphs of relations:

- recognise features of the graphs of x
^{2 }+ y^{2 }= r^{2}and (x – a)^{2 }+ (y – b)^{2 }= r^{2}, including their circular shapes, their centres and their radii; - recognise features of the graph of y
^{2}= x, including its parabolic shape and its axis of symmetry.

Functions:

- understand the concept of a function as a mapping between sets, and as a rule or a formula that defines one variable quantity in terms of another;
- use function notation, domain and range, independent and dependent variables;
- understand the concept of the graph of a function;
- examine translations and the graphs of y=f (x) + a and y = f(x + b);
- examine dilations and the graphs of y = cf(x) and y = f(kx);
- recognise the distinction between functions and relations, and the vertical line test.

**Topic 2: Trigonometric functions**

Cosine and sine rules:

- review sine, cosine and tangent as ratios of side lengths in right-angled triangles;
- understand the unit circle definition of cosθ, sinθ and tanθ and periodicity using degrees;
- examine the relationship between the angle of inclination of a line and the gradient of that line;
- establish and use the sine and cosine rules and the formula Area=½ bc sin A for the area of a triangle.

Circular measure and radian measure:

- define and use radian measure and understand its relationship with degree measure;
- calculate lengths of arcs and areas of sectors in circles.

Trigonometric functions:

- understand the unit circle definition of cosθ, sinθ and tanθ and periodicity using radians;
- recognise the exact values of sinθ, cosθ and tanθ at integer multiples of π/6 and π/4;
- recognise the graphs of y=sin x, y=cos x, and y=tan x on extended domains;
- examine amplitude changes and the graphs of y=a sin x and y=a cos x;
- examine period changes and the graphs of y=sin bx, y=cos bx and y=tan bx;
- examine phase changes and the graphs of y=sin(x + c), y=cos(x + c) and y=tan (x + c) and the relationships sin(x + π/2 ) = cos x

and cos(x − π/2 ) = sin x; - prove and apply the angle sum and difference identities;
- identify contexts suitable for modelling by trigonometric functions and use them to solve practical problems;
- solve equations involving trigonometric functions using technology, and algebraically in simple cases.

Topic 3: Counting and probability

Combinations:

- understand the notion of a combination as an unordered set of r objects taken from a set of n distinct objects;
- use the notation and the formula for the number of combinations of r objects taken from a set of

n distinct objects; - expand (x + y)
^{n }for small positive integers n; - recognise the numbers as binomial coefficients, (as coefficients in the expansion of (x + y)
^{n }); - use Pascal’s triangle and its properties.

Language of events and sets:

- review the concepts and language of outcomes, sample spaces and events as sets of outcomes;
- use set language and notation for events, including Ā for the complement of an event A, A?B for the intersection of events A and B and A?B for the union, and recognise mutually exclusive events;
- use everyday occurrences to illustrate set descriptions and representations of events, and set operations.

Review of the fundamentals of probability:

- review probability as a measure of ‘the likelihood of occurrence’ of an event;
- review the probability scale: 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1 for each event A, with P(A) = 0 if A is an impossibility and P(A) = 1 if A is a certainty;
- review the rules: P(Ā) = 1-P(A) and P (A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A∩B).
- use relative frequencies obtained from data as point estimates of probabilities.

Conditional probability and independence:

- understand the notion of a conditional probability and recognise and use language that indicates conditionality;
- use the notation P(A|B) and the formula P(A∩B) = P(A|B) P(B);
- understand the notion of independence of an event A from an event B, as defined by P(A|B) = P(A);
- establish and use the formula P(A∩B) = P(A) P(B) for independent events A and B, and recognise the symmetry of independence;
- use relative frequencies obtained from data as point estimates of conditional probabilities and as indications of possible independence of events.

**Unit 2**

The algebra section of this unit focuses on exponentials and logarithms. Their graphs are examined and their applications in a wide range of settings are explored. Arithmetic and geometric sequences are introduced and their applications are studied. Rates and average rates of change are introduced, and this is followed by the key concept of the derivative as an ‘instantaneous rate of change’. These concepts are reinforced numerically, by calculating difference quotients both geometrically, as slopes of chords and tangents, and algebraically. Calculus is developed to study the derivatives of polynomial functions, with simple applications of the derivative to curve sketching, calculating slopes and equations of tangents, determining instantaneous velocities and solving optimisation problems. Access to technology to support the computational aspects of these topics is assumed.

By the end of this unit, students:

•understand the concepts and techniques used in algebra, sequences and series, functions, graphs and calculus

•solve problems in algebra, sequences and series, functions, graphs and calculus

•apply reasoning skills in algebra, sequences and series, functions, graphs and calculus

•interpret and evaluate mathematical and statistical information and ascertain the reasonableness of solutions to problems

•communicate arguments and strategies when solving problems.

**Topic 1: Exponential functions**

Indices and the index laws:

- review indices (including fractional indices) and the index laws;
- use radicals and convert to and from fractional indices;
- understand and use scientific notation and significant figures.

Exponential functions:

- establish and use the algebraic properties of exponential functions;
- recognise the qualitative features of the graph of y=a
^{x }(a>0) including asymptotes, and of its translations (y=a^{x }+ b and y =a^{x+c}); - identify contexts suitable for modelling by exponential functions and use them to solve practical problems;
- solve equations involving exponential functions using technology, and algebraically in simple cases.

**Topic 2 Arithmetic and geometric sequences and series**

Arithmetic sequences:

- recognise and use the recursive definition of an arithmetic sequence: t
_{n+1}= t_{n }+ d; - use the formula t
_{n}= t_{1 }+ (n – 1) d for the general term of an arithmetic sequence and recognise its linear nature; - use arithmetic sequences in contexts involving discrete linear growth or decay, such as simple interest;
- establish and use the formula for the sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence.

Geometric sequences:

- recognise and use the recursive definition of a geometric sequence: t
_{n+1}= rt_{n}; - use the formula t
_{n}= r^{n-1 }t_{1 }for the general term of a geometric sequence and recognise its exponential nature; - understand the limiting behaviour as n→∞ of the terms t
_{n }in a geometric sequence and its dependence on the value of the common ratio r; - establish and use the formula for the sum of the first n terms of a geometric sequence;
- use geometric sequences in contexts involving geometric growth or decay, such as compound interest.

**Topic 3: Introduction to differential calculus**

Rates of change:

- interpret the difference quotient as the average rate of change of a function
*f;* - use the Leibniz notation
*δx*and*δy*for changes or increments in the variables*x*and*y;* - use the notation for the difference quotient where
*y = f (x);* - interpret the ratios and as the slope or gradient of a chord or secant of the graph of
*y = f(x).*

The concept of the derivative:

- examine the behaviour of the difference quotient as
*h*→0 as an informal introduction to the concept of a limit; - define the derivative
*f'(x)*as ; - use the Leibniz notation for the derivative: and the correspondence ;
- interpret the derivative as the instantaneous rate of change;
- interpret the derivative as the slope or gradient of a tangent line of the graph of
*y = f(x).*

**Computation of derivatives:**

estimate numerically the value of a derivative, for simple power functions;

examine examples of variable rates of change of non-linear functions;

establish the formula for positive integers *n* by expanding or by factorising .

**Properties of derivatives:**

- understand the concept of the derivative as a function;
- recognise and use linearity properties of the derivative;
- calculate derivatives of polynomials and other linear combinations of power functions.

**Applications of derivatives:**

- find instantaneous rates of change;
- find the slope of a tangent and the equation of the tangent;
- construct and interpret position-time graphs, with velocity as the slope of the tangent;
- sketch curves associated with simple polynomials; find stationary points, and local and global maxima and minima; and examine behaviour as x→∞ and x→-∞;
- solve optimisation problems arising in a variety of contexts involving simple polynomials on finite interval domains.

Anti-derivatives:

Calculate anti-derivatives of polynomial functions and apply to solving simple problems involving motion in a straight line.

**Concepts and Techniques**

A.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of functions, calculus and statistics in routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- selects and applies techniques in functions, calculus and statistics to solve routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- develops, selects and applies mathematical and statistical models in routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- uses digital technologies effectively to graph, display and organise mathematical and statistical information and to solve a range of routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts.

B.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of functions, calculus and statistics in routine and non-routine problems;
- selects and applies techniques in functions, calculus and statistics to solve routine and non-routine problems;
- selects and applies mathematical and statistical models in routine and non-routine problems;
- uses digital technologies appropriately to graph, display and organise mathematical and statistical information and to solve a range of routine and non-routine problems.

C.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of functions, calculus and statistics that apply to routine problems;
- selects and applies techniques in functions, calculus and statistics to solve routine problems;
- applies mathematical and statistical models in routine problems;
- uses digital technologies to graph, display and organise mathematical and statistical information to solve routine problems.

D.

- demonstrates knowledge of concepts of simple functions, calculus and statistics;
- uses simple techniques in functions, calculus and statistics in routine problems;
- demonstrates familiarity mathematical and statistical models;
- uses digital technologies to display some mathematical and statistical information in routine problems.

E.

- demonstrates limited familiarity with concepts of simple functions, calculus and statistics;
- uses simple techniques in a structured context;
- demonstrates limited familiarity with mathematical or statistical models;
- uses digital technologies for arithmetic calculations and to display limited mathematical and statistical information.

**Reasoning and Communication**

A.

- represents functions, calculus and statistics in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- communicates mathematical and statistical judgments and arguments, which are succinct and reasoned, using appropriate language;
- interprets the solutions to routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- explains the reasonableness of the results and solutions to routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- identifies and explains the validity and limitations of models used when developing solutions to routine and non-routine problems.

B.

- represents functions, calculus and statistics in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine and non-routine problems;
- communicates mathematical and statistical judgments and arguments, which are clear and reasoned, using appropriate language;
- interprets the solutions to routine and non-routine problems;
- explains the reasonableness of the results and solutions to routine and non-routine problems;
- identifies and explains the limitations of models used when developing solutions to routine problems.

C.

- represents functions, calculus and statistics in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine problems;
- communicates mathematical and statistical arguments using appropriate language;
- interprets the solutions to routine problems;
- describes the reasonableness of results and solutions to routine problems;
- identifies the limitations of models used when developing solutions to routine problems.

D.

- represents simple functions and distributions in numerical, graphical or symbolic form in routine problems;
- communicates simple mathematical and statistical information using appropriate language;
- describes solutions to routine problems;
- describes the appropriateness of the result of calculations;
- identifies the limitations of simple models used.

E.

- represents limited mathematical or statistical information in a structured context;
- communicates simple mathematical and statistical information;
- identifies solutions to routine problems;
- describes with limited familiarity the appropriateness of the results of calculations;
- identifies simple models.

**Unit 1**

Unit 1 of Specialist Mathematics contains three topics – ‘Combinatorics’, ‘Vectors in the plane’ and ‘Geometry’ – that complement the content of Mathematical Methods. The proficiency strand, Reasoning, of the F–10 curriculum is continued explicitly in ‘Geometry’ through a discussion of developing mathematical arguments. While these ideas are illustrated through deductive Euclidean geometry in this topic, they recur throughout all of the topics in Specialist Mathematics. ‘Geometry’ also provides the opportunity to summarise and extend students’ studies in Euclidean Geometry. An understanding of this topic is of great benefit in the study of later topics in the course, including vectors and complex numbers.

‘Vectors in the plane’ provides new perspectives for working with two-dimensional space, and serves as an introduction to techniques that will be extended to three-dimensional space in Unit 3.

‘Combinatorics’ provides techniques that are useful in many areas of mathematics including probability and algebra. All these topics develop students’ ability to construct mathematical arguments.

These three topics considerably broaden students’ mathematical experience and therefore begin an awakening to the breadth and utility of the subject. They also enable students to increase their mathematical flexibility and versatility.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the concepts and techniques in combinatorics, geometry and vectors;
- apply reasoning skills and solve problems in combinatorics, geometry and vectors;
- communicate their arguments and strategies when solving problems;
- construct proofs in a variety of contexts including algebraic and geometric;
- interpret mathematical information and ascertain the reasonableness of their solutions to problems.

**Topic 1: Combinatorics**

Permutations (ordered arrangements):

- solve problems involving permutations;
- use the multiplication principle;
- use factorial notation;
- solve problems involving permutations and restrictions with or without repeated objects.

The inclusion-exclusion principle for the union of two sets and three sets:

Determine and use the formulas for finding the number of elements in the union of two and the union of three sets.

The pigeon-hole principle:

- Solve problems and prove results using the pigeon-hole principle.
- Combinations (unordered selections):
- solve problems involving combinations;
- use the notation or ;
- derive and use simple identities associated with Pascal’s triangle.

**Topic 2: Vectors in the plane**

Representing vectors in the plane by directed line segments:

- examine examples of vectors including displacement and velocity;
- define and use the magnitude and direction of a vector;
- represent a scalar multiple of a vector;
- use the triangle rule to find the sum and difference of two vectors.

Algebra of vectors in the plane:

- use ordered pair notation and column vector notation to represent a vector;
- define and use unit vectors and the perpendicular unit vectors i and j;
- express a vector in component form using the unit vectors i and j;
- examine and use addition and subtraction of vectors in component form;
- define and use multiplication by a scalar of a vector in component form;
- define and use scalar (dot) product;
- apply the scalar product to vectors expressed in component form;
- examine properties of parallel and perpendicular vectors and determine if two vectors are parallel or perpendicular;
- define and use projections of vectors;
- solve problems involving displacement, force and velocity involving the above concepts.

**Topic 3: Geometry**

The nature of proof:

- use implication, converse, equivalence, negation, contrapositive;
- use proof by contradiction;
- use the symbols for implication (⇒), equivalence (⟺), and equality (=);
- use the quantifiers ‘for all’ and ‘there exists’;
- use examples and counter-examples.

Circle properties and their proofs including the following theorems:

- An angle in a semicircle is a right angle;
- The angle at the centre subtended by an arc of a circle is twice the angle at the circumference subtended by the same arc;
- Angles at the circumference of a circle subtended by the same arc are equal;
- The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary;
- Chords of equal length subtend equal angles at the centre and conversely chords subtending equal angles at the centre of a circle have the same length;
- The alternate segment theorem;
- When two chords of a circle intersect, the product of the lengths of the intervals on one chord equals the product of the lengths of the intervals on the other chord;
- When a secant (meeting the circle at A and B) and a tangent (meeting the circle at T) are drawn to a circle from an external point M, the square of the length of the tangent equals the product of the lengths to the circle on the secant. (AM×BM=TM
^{2}); - Suitable converses of some of the above results;
- Solve problems finding unknown angles and lengths and prove further results using the results listed above.

Geometric proofs using vectors in the plane including:

- The diagonals of a parallelogram meet at right angles if and only if it is a rhombus;
- Midpoints of the sides of a quadrilateral join to form a parallelogram;
- The sum of the squares of the lengths of the diagonals of a parallelogram is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the sides.

**Unit 2**

Unit 2 of Specialist Mathematics contains three topics – ‘Trigonometry’, ‘Real and complex numbers’ and ‘Matrices’…

‘Trigonometry’ contains techniques that are used in other topics in both this unit and Unit 3. ‘Real and complex numbers’ provides a continuation of students’ study of numbers, and the study of complex numbers is continued in Unit 3. This topic also contains a section on proof by mathematical induction. The study of matrices is undertaken, including applications to linear transformations of the plane.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the concepts and techniques in trigonometry, real and complex numbers, and matrices;
- apply reasoning skills and solve problems in trigonometry, real and complex numbers, and matrices;
- communicate their arguments and strategies when solving problems;
- construct proofs of results;
- interpret mathematical information and ascertain the reasonableness of their solutions to problems.

**Topic 1: Trigonometry**

The basic trigonometric functions:

find all solutions of f(a(x-b))=c where f is one of sin, cos or tan;

graph functions with rules of the form y=f(a(x-b)) where f is one of sin, cos or tan;

Compound angles:

Prove and apply the angle sum, difference and double angle identities.

The reciprocal trigonometric functions, secant, cosecant and cotangent:

Define the reciprocal trigonometric functions, sketch their graphs, and graph simple transformations of them.

Trigonometric identities:

- prove and apply the Pythagorean identities;
- prove and apply the identities for products of sines and cosines expressed as sums and differences;
- convert sums a cos x+b sin x to R cos(x±α) or R sin (x±α) and apply these to sketch graphs, solve equations of the form

acosx+bsinx=c and solve problems; - prove and apply other trigonometric identities such as cos 3x = 4 cos
^{3}x.

Applications of trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena:

Model periodic motion using sine and cosine functions and understand the relevance of the period and amplitude of these functions in the model.

**Topic 2: Matrices**

Matrix arithmetic:

- understand the matrix definition and notation;
- define and use addition and subtraction of matrices, scalar multiplication, matrix multiplication, multiplicative identity and inverse;
- calculate the determinant and inverse of 2×2 matrices and solve matrix equations of the form AX=B, where A is a 2×2 matrix and X

and B are column vectors.

Transformations in the plane:

- translations and their representation as column vectors;
- define and use basic linear transformations: dilations of the form (x,y)⟶(λ1x,λ2y), rotations about the origin and reflection in a line which passes through the origin, and the representations of these transformations by 2×2 matrices;
- apply these transformations to points in the plane and geometric objects;
- define and use composition of linear transformations and the corresponding matrix products;
- define and use inverses of linear transformations and the relationship with the matrix inverse;
- examine the relationship between the determinant and the effect of a linear transformation on area;
- establish geometric results by matrix multiplications; for example, show that the combined effect of two reflections in lines through the origin is a rotation.

**Topic 3: Real and complex numbers**

Proofs involving numbers:

Prove simple results involving numbers.

Rational and irrational numbers:

- express rational numbers as terminating or eventually recurring decimals and vice versa;
- prove irrationality by contradiction for numbers such as and .

An introduction to proof by mathematical induction:

- understand the nature of inductive proof including the ‘initial statement’ and inductive step;
- prove results for sums, such as for any positive integer n;
- prove divisibility results, such as is divisible by 5 for any positive integer n.

Complex numbers:

- define the imaginary number i as a root of the equation X
^{2 }= -1; - use complex numbers in the form a+bi where a and b are the real and imaginary parts;
- determine and use complex conjugates;
- perform complex-number arithmetic: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

The complex plane:

- consider complex numbers as points in a plane with real and imaginary parts as Cartesian coordinates;
- examine addition of complex numbers as vector addition in the complex plane;
- understand and use location of complex conjugates in the complex plane.

Roots of equations:

- use the general solution of real quadratic equations;
- determine complex conjugate solutions of real quadratic equations;
- determine linear factors of real quadratic polynomials.

**Concepts and Techniques**

A.

- demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the concepts of vectors, combinatorics, geometry, matrices, trigonometry and complex numbers in routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- synthesises information to select and apply techniques in mathematics to solve routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- develops, selects and applies mathematical models to routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- constructs mathematical proofs in a variety of contexts, and adapts previously seen mathematical proofs;
- uses digital technologies effectively to graph, display and organise mathematical information to solve a range of routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts.

B.

- demonstrates knowledge of the concepts of vectors, combinatorics, geometry, matrices, trigonometry and complex numbers in routine and non-routine problems;
- selects and applies techniques in mathematics to solve routine and non-routine problems;
- selects and applies mathematical models to routine and non-routine problems;
- constructs simple mathematical proofs, and adapts previously seen mathematical proofs;
- uses digital technologies appropriately to graph, display and organise mathematical information to solve a range of routine and non-routine problems.

C.

- demonstrates knowledge of the concepts of vectors, combinatorics, geometry, matrices, trigonometry and complex numbers that apply to routine problems;
- selects and applies techniques in mathematics to solve routine problems;
- applies mathematical models to routine problems;
- reproduces previously seen mathematical proofs;
- uses digital technologies to graph, display and organise mathematical information to solve routine problems.

D.

- demonstrates knowledge of the concepts of vectors, combinatorics, geometry, matrices, trigonometry and complex numbers;
- uses simple techniques in mathematics in routine problems;
- demonstrates familiarity with mathematical models;
- reproduces previously seen simple mathematical proofs;
- uses digital technologies to display some mathematical information in routine problems.

E.

- demonstrates limited familiarity with simple concepts of vectors, combinatorics, geometry, matrices, trigonometry and complex numbers;
- uses simple techniques in a structured context;
- demonstrates limited familiarity with mathematical models;
- demonstrates limited familiarity with mathematical proofs;
- uses digital technologies for arithmetic calculations and to display limited mathematical information.

**Reasoning and Communication**

A.

- represents mathematical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- communicates succinct and reasoned mathematical judgments and arguments, including proofs, using appropriate language;
- interprets the solutions to routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- explains the reasonableness of the results and solutions to routine and non-routine problems in a variety of contexts;
- identifies and explains the validity and limitations of models used when developing solutions to routine and non-routine problems.

B.

- represents mathematical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine and non-routine problems;
- communicates clear and reasoned mathematical judgments and arguments, including simple proofs, using appropriate language;
- interpret the solutions to routine and non-routine problems;
- explains the reasonableness of the results and solutions to routine and non-routine problems;
- identifies and explains limitations of models used when developing solutions to routine problems.

C.

- represents mathematical information in numerical, graphical and symbolic form in routine problems;
- communicates mathematical arguments, including previously seen proofs, using appropriate language;
- interprets the solutions to routine problems;
- describes the reasonableness of the results and solutions to routine problems;
- identifies limitations of models used when developing solutions to routine problems.

D.

- represents mathematical information in numerical, graphical or symbolic form in routine problems;
- communicates mathematical information using appropriate language;
- describes solutions to routine problems;
- describes the appropriateness of the results of calculations;
- identifies limitations of simple models.

E.

- represents simple mathematical information in a structured context;
- communicates simple mathematical information;
- identifies solutions to routine problems;
- demonstrates limited familiarity with the appropriateness of the results of calculations;
- identifies simple models.

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

**Unit 1: Biodiversity and the interconnectedness of life**

The current view of the biosphere as a dynamic system composed of Earth’s diverse, interrelated and interacting ecosystems developed from the work of eighteenth and nineteenth century naturalists, who collected, classified, measured and mapped the distribution of organisms and environments around the world. In this unit, students investigate and describe a number of diverse ecosystems, exploring the range of biotic and abiotic components to understand the dynamics, diversity and underlying unity of these systems.

Students develop an understanding of the processes involved in the movement of energy and matter in ecosystems. They investigate ecosystem dynamics, including interactions within and between species, and interactions between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. They also investigate how measurements of abiotic factors, population numbers and species diversity, and descriptions of species interactions, can form the basis for spatial and temporal comparisons between ecosystems. Students use classification keys to identify organisms, describe the biodiversity in ecosystems, investigate patterns in relationships between organisms, and aid scientific communication.

Through the investigation of appropriate contexts, students explore how international collaboration, evidence from multiple disciplines and the use of ICT and other technologies have contributed to the study and conservation of national, regional and global biodiversity. They investigate how scientific knowledge is used to offer valid explanations and reliable predictions, and the ways in which scientific knowledge interacts with social, economic, cultural and ethical factors.

Fieldwork is an important part of this unit, providing valuable opportunities for students to work together to collect first-hand data and to experience local ecosystem interactions. In order to understand the interconnectedness of organisms, the physical environment and human activity, students analyse and interpret data collected through investigation of a local environment and from sources relating to other Australian, regional and global environments.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand how classification helps to organise, analyse and communicate data about biodiversity;
- understand that ecosystem diversity and dynamics can be described and compared with reference to biotic and abiotic components and their interactions;
- understand how theories and models have developed based on evidence from multiple disciplines; and the uses and limitations of biological knowledge in a range of contexts;
- use science inquiry skills to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate investigations into biodiversity and flows of matter and energy in a range of ecosystems;
- evaluate, with reference to empirical evidence, claims about relationships between and within species, diversity of and within ecosystems, and energy and matter flows;
- communicate biological understanding using qualitative and quantitative representations in appropriate modes and genres.

**Science Inquiry Skills (Biology Unit 1)**

Identify, research and construct questions for investigation; propose hypotheses; and predict possible outcomes.

Design investigations, including the procedure/s to be followed, the materials required, and the type and amount of primary and/or secondary data to be collected; conduct risk assessments; and consider research ethics, including animal ethics.

Conduct investigations, including using ecosystem surveying techniques, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and reliable data.

Represent data in meaningful and useful ways; organise and analyse data to identify trends, patterns and relationships; qualitatively describe sources of measurement error, and uncertainty and limitations in data; and select, synthesise and use evidence to make and justify conclusions.

Interpret a range of scientific and media texts, and evaluate processes, claims and conclusions by considering the quality of available evidence; and use reasoning to construct scientific arguments.

Select, construct and use appropriate representations, including classification keys, food webs and biomass pyramids, to communicate conceptual understanding, solve problems and make predictions.

Communicate to specific audiences and for specific purposes using appropriate language, nomenclature, genres and modes, including scientific reports.

**Science as a Human Endeavour (Units 1 and 2)**

Science is a global enterprise that relies on clear communication, international conventions, peer review and reproducibility.

Development of complex models and/or theories often requires a wide range of evidence from multiple individuals and across disciplines.

Advances in science understanding in one field can influence other areas of science, technology and engineering.

The use of scientific knowledge is influenced by social, economic, cultural and ethical considerations.

The use of scientific knowledge may have beneficial and/or harmful and/or unintended consequences.

Scientific knowledge can enable scientists to offer valid explanations and make reliable predictions.

Scientific knowledge can be used to develop and evaluate projected economic, social and environmental impacts and to design action for sustainability.

**Science Understanding**

Biodiversity includes the diversity of species and ecosystems; measures of biodiversity rely on classification and are used to make comparisons across spatial and temporal scales.

Biological classification is hierarchical and based on different levels of similarity of physical features, methods of reproduction and molecular sequences.

Biological classification systems reflect evolutionary relatedness between groups of organisms.

Most common definitions of species rely on morphological or genetic similarity or the ability to interbreed to produce fertile offspring in natural conditions – but, in all cases, exceptions are found.

Ecosystems are diverse, composed of varied habitats and can be described in terms of their component species, species interactions and the abiotic factors that make up the environment.

Relationships and interactions between species in ecosystems include predation, competition, symbiosis and disease.

In addition to biotic factors, abiotic factors including climate and substrate can be used to describe and classify environments.

Ecosystem dynamics Examples in Context

The biotic components of an ecosystem transfer and transform energy originating primarily from the sun to produce biomass, and interact with abiotic components to facilitate biogeochemical cycling, including carbon and nitrogen cycling; these interactions can be represented using food webs, biomass pyramids, water and nutrient cycles.

Species or populations, including those of microorganisms, fill specific ecological niches; the competitive exclusion principle postulates that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same environment for an extended period of time.

Keystone species play a critical role in maintaining the structure of the community; the impact of a reduction in numbers or the disappearance of keystone species on an ecosystem is greater than would be expected based on their relative abundance or total biomass.

Ecosystems have carrying capacities that limit the number of organisms (within populations) they support, and can be impacted by changes to abiotic and biotic factors, including climatic events.

Ecological succession involves changes in the populations of species present in a habitat; these changes impact the abiotic and biotic interactions in the community, which in turn influence further changes in the species present and their population size.

Ecosystems can change dramatically over time; the fossil record and sedimentary rock characteristics provide evidence of past ecosystems and changes in biotic and abiotic components.

Human activities (for example, over-exploitation, habitat destruction, monocultures, pollution) can reduce biodiversity and can impact on the magnitude, duration and speed of ecosystem change.

Models of ecosystem interactions (for example, food webs, successional models) can be used to predict the impact of change and are based on interpretation of and extrapolation from sample data (for example, data derived from ecosystem surveying techniques); the reliability of the model is determined by the representativeness of the sampling.

**Unit 2: Cells and multicellular organisms**

The cell is the basic unit of life. Although cell structure and function are very diverse, all cells possess some common features: all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells need to exchange materials with their immediate external environment in order to maintain the chemical processes vital for cell functioning. In this unit, students examine inputs and outputs of cells to develop an understanding of the chemical nature of cellular systems, both structurally and functionally, and the processes required for cell survival. Students investigate the ways in which matter moves and energy is transformed and transferred in the biochemical processes of photosynthesis and respiration, and the role of enzymes in controlling biochemical systems.

Multicellular organisms typically consist of a number of interdependent systems of cells organised into tissues, organs and organ systems. Students examine the structure and function of plant and animal systems at cell and tissue levels in order to describe how they facilitate the efficient provision or removal of materials to and from all cells of the organism.

Through the investigation of appropriate contexts, students explore how international collaboration, evidence from multiple disciplines and the use of ICT and other technologies have contributed to developing understanding of the structure and function of cells and multicellular organisms. They investigate how scientific knowledge is used to offer valid explanations and reliable predictions, and the ways in which scientific knowledge interacts with social, economic, cultural and ethical factors.

Students use science inquiry skills to explore the relationship between structure and function, by conducting real or virtual dissections and carrying out microscopic examination of cells and tissues. Students consider the ethical considerations that apply to the use of living organisms in research. They develop skills in constructing and using models to describe and interpret data about the functions of cells and organisms.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand that the structure and function of cells and their components are related to the need to exchange matter and energy with their immediate environment;
- understand that multicellular organisms consist of multiple interdependent and hierarchically-organised systems that enable exchange of matter and energy with their immediate environment;
- understand how theories and models have developed based on evidence from multiple disciplines; and the uses and limitations of biological knowledge in a range of contexts;
- use science inquiry skills to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate investigations into the structure and function of cells and multicellular organisms;
- evaluate, with reference to empirical evidence, claims about cellular processes and the structure and function of multicellular organisms;
- communicate biological understanding using qualitative and quantitative representations in appropriate modes and genres.

**Science Inquiry Skills (Biology Unit 2)**

Identify, research and construct questions for investigation; propose hypotheses; and predict possible outcomes.

Design investigations, including the procedure/s to be followed, the materials required, and the type and amount of primary and/or secondary data to be collected; conduct risk assessments; and consider research ethics, including animal ethics.

Conduct investigations, including microscopy techniques, real or virtual dissections and chemical analysis, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and reliable data.

Represent data in meaningful and useful ways; organise and analyse data to identify trends, patterns and relationships; qualitatively describe sources of measurement error, and uncertainty and limitations in data; and select, synthesise and use evidence to make and justify conclusions.

Interpret a range of scientific and media texts, and evaluate processes, claims and conclusions by considering the quality of available evidence; and use reasoning to construct scientific arguments.

Select, construct and use appropriate representations, including diagrams of structures and processes; and images from different imaging techniques, to communicate conceptual understanding, solve problems and make predictions.

Communicate to specific audiences and for specific purposes using appropriate language, nomenclature, genres and modes, including scientific reports.

**Science as a Human Endeavour (Units 1 and 2)**

Science is a global enterprise that relies on clear communication, international conventions, peer review and reproducibility.

Development of complex models and/or theories often requires a wide range of evidence from multiple individuals and across disciplines.

Advances in science understanding in one field can influence other areas of science, technology and engineering

The use of scientific knowledge is influenced by social, economic, cultural and ethical considerations.

The use of scientific knowledge may have beneficial and/or harmful and/or unintended consequences.

Scientific knowledge can enable scientists to offer reliable explanations and make reliable predictions.

Scientific knowledge can be used to develop and evaluate projected economic, social and environmental impacts and to design action for sustainability.

**Cells as the basis of life**

Cells require inputs of suitable forms of energy, including light energy or chemical energy in complex molecules, and matter, including gases, simple nutrients, ions, and removal of wastes, to survive.

The cell membrane separates the cell from its surroundings and controls the exchange of materials, including gases, nutrients and wastes, between the cell and its environment.

Movement of materials across membranes occurs via diffusion, osmosis, active transport and/or endocytosis.

Factors that affect exchange of materials across membranes include the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the cell, concentration gradients, and the physical and chemical nature of the materials being exchanged.

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have many features in common, which is a reflection of their common evolutionary past, but prokaryotes lack internal membrane bound organelles, do not have a nucleus, are significantly smaller than eukaryotes, usually have a single circular chromosome, and exist as single cells.

In eukaryotic cells, specialised organelles facilitate biochemical processes of photosynthesis, cellular respiration, the synthesis of complex molecules (including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and other biomacromolecules), and the removal of cellular products and wastes.

Biochemical processes in the cell are controlled by the nature and arrangement of internal membranes, the presence of specific enzymes, and environmental factors.

Enzymes have specific functions, which can be affected by factors including temperature, pH, the presence of inhibitors, and the concentrations of reactants and products.

Photosynthesis is a biochemical process that in plant cells occurs in the chloroplast and that uses light energy to synthesise organic compounds; the overall process can be represented as a balanced chemical equation.

Cellular respiration is a biochemical process that occurs in different locations in the cytosol and mitochondria and metabolises organic compounds, aerobically or anaerobically, to release usable energy in the form of ATP; the overall process can be represented as a balanced chemical equation.

**Multicellular organisms**

Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organisation of cells, tissues, organs and systems.

The specialised structure and function of tissues, organs and systems can be related to cell differentiation and cell specialisation.

In animals, the exchange of gases between the internal and external environments of the organism is facilitated by the structure and function of the respiratory system at cell and tissue levels.

In animals, the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the internal and external environments of the organism is facilitated by the structure and function of the cells and tissues of the digestive system (for example, villi structure and function), and the excretory system (for example, nephron structure and function).

In animals, the transport of materials within the internal environment for exchange with cells is facilitated by the structure and function of the circulatory system at cell and tissue levels (for example, the structure and function of capillaries).

In plants, gases are exchanged via stomata and the plant surface; their movement within the plant by diffusion does not involve the plant transport system.

In plants, transport of water and mineral nutrients from the roots occurs via xylem involving root pressure, transpiration and cohesion of water molecules; transport of the products of photosynthesis and some mineral nutrients occurs by translocation in the phloem.

**Biology – Unit 1 and Unit 2**

**A.**

Biology concepts, models and applications

- analyses how system components function and are interrelated at micro and macro levels;
- analyses how flows of matter and transfers and transformations of energy are related in system processes;
- explains the theories and model/s used to explain the system and the aspects of the system they include;
- applies theories and models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret complex problems and make reasoned, plausible predictions in unfamiliar contexts.

Context

- analyses the role of collaboration, debate and review, and technologies, in the development of biological theories and models;
- evaluates how biological science has been used in concert with other sciences to meet diverse needs and inform decision making; and how these applications are influenced by interacting social, economic and ethical factors.

Biology Inquiry Skills

- designs, conducts and improves safe, ethical investigations that efficiently collect valid, reliable data in response to a complex question or problem;
- analyses data sets to explain causal and correlational relationships, the reliability of the data and sources of error;
- justifies their selection of data as evidence, analyses evidence with reference to models and/or theories and develops evidence-based conclusions that identify limitations;
- evaluates processes and claims, and provides an evidence-based critique and discussion of improvements or alternatives;

selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe complex relationships and to solve complex and unfamiliar problems; - communicates effectively and accurately in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific audiences and purposes.

**B.**

Biology concepts, models and applications

- explains how system components are interrelated and how they function;
- explains the role of system components in processes involving flows of matter and transfers and transformations of energy;
- describes the theories and model/s used to explain the system;
- applies theories and models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret problems and make plausible predictions in unfamiliar contexts.

Context

- explains the role of collaboration, debate and review, and technologies, in the development of biological theories and models;
- explains how biological science has been used to meet diverse needs and inform decision making; and how these applications are influenced by social, economic and ethical factors.

Biology Inquiry Skills

- designs, conducts and improves safe, ethical investigations that collect valid, reliable data in response to a question or problem;
- analyses data sets to identify causal and correlational relationships, anomalies and sources of error;
- selects appropriate data as evidence, interprets evidence with reference to models and/or theories and provides evidence for conclusions;
- evaluates processes and claims, provides a critique with reference to evidence and identifies possible improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe complex relationships and to solve unfamiliar problems;
- communicates clearly and accurately in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific audiences and purposes

**C.**

Biology concepts, models and applications

- describes the system components and their function;
- describes the ways in which matter and energy move through the system;
- describes a theory or model used to explain the system;
- applies theories or models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret problems and make plausible predictions in familiar contexts.

Context

- describes the role of collaboration and review, and technologies, in the development of biological theories or models;
- discusses how biological science has been used to meet needs and inform decision making, and some social, economic or ethical implications of these applications.

Biology Inquiry Skills

- designs and conducts safe, ethical investigations that collect valid data in response to a question or problem;
- analyses data to identify relationships, anomalies and sources of error;
- selects data to demonstrate relationships linked to biological knowledge and provides conclusions based on data;
- evaluates processes and claims, and suggests improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe relationships and solve problems;
- communicates clearly in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific purposes.

**D.**

Biology concepts, models and applications

- identifies the system components;
- describes observable processes and phenomena;
- identifies aspects of a theory or model related to the system;
- describes phenomena, interprets simple problems and makes simple predictions in familiar contexts.

Context

- describes the role of communication and new evidence in developing biological knowledge;
- describes ways in which biological science has been used in society to meet needs and identifies some implications of these applications.

Biology Inquiry Skills

- plans and conducts safe, ethical investigations to collect data in response to a question or problem;
- analyses data to identify trends and anomalies;
- selects data to demonstrate trends and presents simple conclusions based on data;
- considers processes and claims from a personal perspective;
- constructs and uses simple representations to describe relationships and solve simple problems;
- communicates in a range of modes and genres.

**E.**

Biology concepts, models and applications

- identifies some parts of the system;
- describes some observable phenomena;
- identifies aspects of a theory or model related to parts of the system;
- describes phenomena and makes simple predictions in familiar, simple contexts.

Context

- identifies that biological knowledge has changed over time;
- identifies ways in which biological science has been used in society to meet needs.

Biology Inquiry Skills

- follows a procedure to conduct safe, ethical investigations to collect data;
- identifies trends in data;
- selects data to demonstrate trends;
- considers claims from a personal perspective;
- constructs and uses simple representations to describe phenomena;
- communicates in a range of modes.

**Unit 1: Chemical fundamentals: structure, properties and reactions**

Chemists design and produce a vast range of materials for many purposes, including for fuels, cosmetics, building materials and pharmaceuticals. As the science of chemistry has developed over time, there has been an increasing realisation that the properties of a material depend on, and can be explained by, the material’s structure. A range of models at the atomic and molecular scale enable explanation and prediction of the structure of materials and how this structure influences properties and reactions. In this unit, students relate matter and energy in chemical reactions, as they consider the breaking and reforming of bonds as new substances are produced. Students can use materials that they encounter in their lives as a context for investigating the relationships between structure and properties.

Through the investigation of appropriate contexts, students explore how evidence from multiple disciplines and individuals and the development of ICT and other technologies have contributed to developing understanding of atomic structure and chemical bonding. They explore how scientific knowledge is used to offer reliable explanations and predictions, and the ways in which it interacts with social, economic, cultural and ethical factors.

Students use science inquiry skills to develop their understanding of patterns in the properties and composition of materials. They investigate the structure of materials by describing physical and chemical properties at the macroscopic scale, and use models of structure and primary bonding at the atomic and sub-atomic scale to explain these properties. They are introduced to the mole concept as a means of quantifying matter in chemical reactions.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand how the atomic model and models of bonding explain the structure and properties of elements and compounds;
- understand the concept of enthalpy, and apply this to qualitatively and quantitatively describe and explain energy changes in chemical reactions;
- understand how models and theories have developed based on evidence from a range of sources, and the uses and limitations of chemical knowledge in a range of contexts;
- use science inquiry skills to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate investigations into the properties of elements, compounds and mixtures and the energy changes involved in chemical reactions;
- evaluate, with reference to empirical evidence, claims about chemical properties, structures and reactions ;
- communicate, predict and explain chemical phenomena using qualitative and quantitative representations in appropriate modes and genres.

**Science Inquiry Skills (Chemistry Unit 1)**

Identify, research and refine questions for investigation; propose hypotheses; and predict possible outcomes.

Design investigations, including the procedure/s to be followed, the materials required, and the type and amount of primary and/or secondary data to be collected; conduct risk assessments; and consider research ethics.

Conduct investigations, including the use of devices to accurately measure temperature change and mass, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and reliable data.

Represent data in meaningful and useful ways, including using appropriate graphic representations and correct units and symbols; organise and process data to identify trends, patterns and relationships; identify sources of random and systematic error and estimate their effect on measurement results; and select, synthesise and use evidence to make and justify conclusions.

Interpret a range of scientific and media texts, and evaluate processes, claims and conclusions by considering the quality of available evidence; and use reasoning to construct scientific arguments.

Select, construct and use appropriate representations including chemical symbols and formulae, molecular structural formulae, physical and graphical models of structures, chemical equations and thermochemical equations, to communicate conceptual understanding, solve problems and make predictions.

Select and use appropriate mathematical representations to solve problems and make predictions, including calculating percentage composition from relative atomic masses and using the mole concept to calculate the mass of reactants and products.

Communicate to specific audiences and for specific purposes using appropriate language, nomenclature, genres and modes, including scientific reports.

**Science as a Human Endeavour (Units 1 and 2)**

Science is a global enterprise that relies on clear communication, international conventions, peer review and reproducibility.

Development of complex models and/or theories often requires a wide range of evidence from multiple individuals and across disciplines.

Advances in science understanding in one field can influence other areas of science, technology and engineering.

The use of scientific knowledge is influenced by social, economic, cultural and ethical considerations.

The use of scientific knowledge may have beneficial and/or harmful and/or unintended consequences.

Scientific knowledge can enable scientists to offer valid explanations and make reliable predictions.

Scientific knowledge can be used to develop and evaluate projected economic, social and environmental impacts and to design action for sustainability.

**Properties and structure of atoms**

Trends in the observable properties of elements are evident in periods and groups in the periodic table.

The structure of the periodic table is based on the electron configuration of atoms, and shows trends, including in atomic radii and valencies.

Atoms can be modelled as a nucleus surrounded by electrons in distinct energy levels, held together by electrostatic forces of attraction between the nucleus and electrons; atoms can be represented using electron shell diagrams (all electron shells or valence shell only) or electron charge clouds.

Flame tests and atomic absorption spectroscopy are analytical techniques that can be used to identify elements; these methods rely on electron transfer between atomic energy levels.

The properties of atoms, including their ability to form chemical bonds, are explained by the arrangement of electrons in the atom and in particular by the stability of the valence electron shell.

Isotopes are atoms of an element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons; different isotopes of elements are represented using atomic symbols (for example, C612, C613).

Isotopes of an element have the same electron configuration and possess similar chemical properties but have different physical properties, including variations in nuclear stability.

Mass spectrometry involves the ionisation of substances and generates spectra which can be analysed to determine the isotopic composition of elements.

The relative atomic mass of an element is the ratio of the weighted average mass per atom of the naturally occurring form of the element to 112, the mass of an atom of carbon-12; relative atomic masses reflect the isotopic composition of the element.

**Properties and structure of materials**

Materials are either pure substances with distinct measurable properties (for example, melting and boiling point, reactivity, strength, density) or mixtures with properties dependent on the identity and relative amounts of the substances that make up the mixture.

Differences in the properties of substances in a mixture, such as particle size, solubility, magnetism, density, electrostatic attraction, melting point and boiling point, can be used to separate them.

The type of bonding within substances explains their physical properties, including melting and boiling point, conductivity of both electricity and heat, strength and hardness.

Nanomaterials are substances that contain particles in the size range 1–100 nm and have specific properties relating to the size of these particles.

Chemical bonds are caused by electrostatic attractions that arise because of the sharing or transfer of electrons between participating atoms; the valency is a measure of the number of bonds that an atom can form.

Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that are electrically charged due to an imbalance in the number of electrons and protons; ions are represented by formulae which include the number of constituent atoms and the charge of the ion (for example, O2–, SO42–).

The properties of ionic compounds (for example, high melting point, brittleness, ability to conduct electricity when liquid or in solution) are explained by modelling ionic bonding as ions arranged in a crystalline lattice structure with forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions.

The characteristic properties of metals (for example, malleability, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity) are explained by modelling metallic bonding as a regular arrangement of positive ions (cations) made stable by electrostatic forces of attraction between these ions and the electrons that are free to move within the structure.

Covalent substances are modelled as molecules or covalent networks that comprise atoms which share electrons, resulting in electrostatic forces of attraction between electrons and the nucleus of more than one atom.

Elemental carbon exists as a range of allotropes, including graphite, diamond and fullerenes, with significantly different structures and physical properties.

Carbon forms hydrocarbon compounds, including alkanes and alkenes, with different chemical properties that are influenced by the nature of the bonding within the molecules.

**Chemical reactions: reactants, products and energy change**

All chemical reactions involve the creation of new substances and associated energy transformations, commonly observable as changes in the temperature of the surroundings and/or the emission of light.

Endothermic and exothermic reactions can be explained in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy and the breaking and reforming of bonds; heat energy released or absorbed can be represented in thermochemical equations.

Fuels, including fossil fuels and biofuels, can be compared in terms of their energy output, suitability for purpose, and the nature of products of combustion.

A mole is a precisely defined quantity of matter equal to Avogadro’s number of particles; the mole concept and the Law of Conservation of Mass can be used to calculate the mass of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

**Unit 2: Molecular interactions and reactions**

In this unit, students develop their understanding of the physical and chemical properties of materials including gases, water and aqueous solutions, acids and bases. Students explore the characteristic properties of water that make it essential for physical, chemical and biological processes on Earth, including the properties of aqueous solutions. They investigate and explain the solubility of substances in water, and compare and analyse a range of solutions. They learn how rates of reaction can be measured and altered to meet particular needs, and use models of energy transfer and the structure of matter to explain and predict changes to rates of reaction. Students gain an understanding of how to control the rates of chemical reactions, including through the use of a range of catalysts.

Through the investigation of appropriate contexts, students explore how evidence from multiple disciplines and individuals and the development of ICT and other technologies have contributed to developing understanding of intermolecular forces and chemical reactions. They explore how scientific knowledge is used to offer reliable explanations and predictions, and the ways in which it interacts with social, economic, cultural and ethical factors.

Students use a range of practical and research inquiry skills to investigate chemical reactions, including the prediction and identification of products and the measurement of the rate of reaction. They investigate the behaviour of gases, and use the kinetic theory to predict the effects of changing temperature, volume and pressure in gaseous systems.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand how models of the shape and structure of molecules and intermolecular forces can be used to explain the properties of substances, including the solubility of substances in water;
- understand how kinetic theory can be used to explain the behaviour of gaseous systems, and how collision theory can be used to explain and predict the effect of varying conditions on the rate of reaction;
- understand how models and theories have developed based on evidence from multiple disciplines, and the uses and limitations of chemical knowledge in a range of contexts;
- use science inquiry skills to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate investigations into the properties and behaviour of gases, water, aqueous solutions and acids and the factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions;
- evaluate, with reference to empirical evidence, claims about chemical properties, structures and reactions;
- communicate, predict and explain chemical phenomena using qualitative and quantitative representations in appropriate modes and genres.

**Science Inquiry Skills (Chemistry Unit 2)**

Identify, research, construct and refine questions for investigation; propose hypotheses; and predict possible outcomes.

Design investigations, including the procedure/s to be followed, the materials required, and the type and amount of primary and/or secondary data to be collected; conduct risk assessments; and consider research ethics.

Conduct investigations, including measuring pH and the rate of formation of products, identifying the products of reactions, and testing solubilities, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and reliable data.

Represent data in meaningful and useful ways, including using appropriate graphic representations and correct units and symbols; organise and process data to identify trends, patterns and relationships; identify sources of random and systematic error; identify anomalous data; estimate the effect of error on measured results; and select, synthesise and use evidence to make and justify conclusions.

Select, construct and use appropriate representations, including physical and graphical models of molecules, energy profile diagrams, electron dot diagrams, ionic formulae, chemical formulae, chemical equations and phase descriptors for chemical species to communicate conceptual understanding, solve problems and make predictions.

Select and use appropriate mathematical representations to solve problems and make predictions, including using the mole concept to calculate the mass of chemicals and/or volume of a gas (at standard temperature and pressure) involved in a chemical reaction, and using the relationship between the number of moles of solute, concentration and volume of a solution to calculate unknown values.

**Science as a Human Endeavour (Units 1 and 2)**

Science is a global enterprise that relies on clear communication, international conventions, peer review, and reproducibility.

Advances in science understanding in one field can influence other areas of science, technology and engineering.

The use of scientific knowledge may have beneficial and/or harmful and/or unintended consequences.

Scientific knowledge can enable scientists to offer valid explanations and make reliable predictions.

**Intermolecular forces and gases**

Observable properties, including vapour pressure, melting point, boiling point and solubility, can be explained by considering the nature and strength of intermolecular forces within a substance.

The shapes of molecules can be explained and predicted using three-dimensional representations of electrons as charge clouds and using valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory.

The polarity of molecules can be explained and predicted using knowledge of molecular shape, understanding of symmetry, and comparison of the electronegativity of elements.

The shape and polarity of molecules can be used to explain and predict the nature and strength of intermolecular forces, including dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding.

Data from chromatography techniques (for example, thin layer, gas and high-performance liquid chromatography) can be used to determine the composition and purity of substances; the separation of the components is caused by the variation of strength of the interactions between atoms, molecules or ions in the mobile and stationary phases.

The behaviour of gases, including the qualitative relationships between pressure, temperature and volume, can be explained using kinetic theory.

**Aqueous solutions and acidity**

Water is a key substance in a range of chemical systems because of its unique properties, including its boiling point, density in solid and liquid phases, surface tension, and ability to act as a solvent.

The unique properties of water can be explained by its molecular shape and hydrogen bonding between molecules.

The concentration of a solution is defined as the amount of solute divided by the amount of solution; this can be represented in a variety of ways including by the number of moles of the solute per litre of solution (mol L-1) and the mass of the solute per litre of solution (g L-1).

The presence of specific ions in solutions can be identified using analytical techniques based on chemical reactions, including precipitation and acid-base reactions.

The solubility of substances in water, including ionic and molecular substances, can be explained by the intermolecular forces between species in the substances and water molecules, and is affected by changes in temperature.

The pH scale is used to compare the levels of acidity or alkalinity of aqueous solutions; the pH is dependent on the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution.

Patterns of the reactions of acids and bases (for example, reactions of acids with bases, metals and carbonates) allow products to be predicted from known reactants.

**Rates of chemical reactions**

Varying the conditions present during chemical reactions can affect the rate of the reaction and in some cases the identity of the products.

The rate of chemical reactions can be quantified by measuring the rate of formation of products or the depletion of reactants.

Collision theory can be used to explain and predict the effect of concentration, temperature, pressure and surface area on the rate of chemical reactions by considering the structure of the reactants and the energy of particles.

The activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur and is related to the strength of the existing chemical bonds; the magnitude of the activation energy influences the rate of a chemical reaction.

Energy profile diagrams can be used to represent the enthalpy changes and activation energy associated with a chemical reaction.

Catalysts, including enzymes and metal nanoparticles, affect the rate of certain reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway with a reduced activation energy, hence increasing the proportion of collisions that lead to a chemical change.

**Chemistry – Unit 1 and Unit 2**

**A.**

Chemistry concepts, models and applications

- analyses how structure, bond strength and energy transfers and transformations are interrelated in chemical systems;
- analyses how a range of factors affect atomic or molecular interactions and change the structure and properties of systems;
- explains the theories and model/s used to explain the system and the aspects of the system they include;
- applies theories and models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret complex problems, and make reasoned, plausible predictions in unfamiliar contexts.

Context

- analyses the roles of collaboration, debate and review, and technologies, in the development of chemical science theories and models;
- evaluates how chemical science has been used in concert with other sciences to meet diverse needs and inform decision making, and how these applications are influenced by interacting social, economic and ethical factors.

Chemistry inquiry skills

- designs, conducts and improves safe, ethical investigations that efficiently collect valid, reliable data in response to a complex question or problem;
- analyses data sets to explain causal and correlational relationships, the reliability of the data, and sources of error;
- justifies their selection of data as evidence, analyses evidence with reference to models and/or theories, and develops evidence-based conclusions that identify limitations;
- evaluates processes and claims, and provides an evidence-based critique and discussion of improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe complex relationships and solve complex and unfamiliar problems;
- communicates effectively and accurately in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific audiences and purposes.

**B.**

Chemistry concepts, models and applications

- explains how structure, bonding and energy transfers and transformations are interrelated in chemical systems;
- explains how a range of factors change the structure and properties of chemical systems;
- describes the theories and model/s used to explain the system;
- applies theories and models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret problems, and make plausible predictions in unfamiliar contexts.

Context

- explains the role of collaboration, debate and review, and technologies, in the development of chemical science theories and models;
- explains how chemical science has been used to meet diverse needs and inform decision making, and how these applications are influenced by social, economic and ethical factors.

Chemistry inquiry skills

- designs, conducts and improves safe, ethical investigations that collect valid, reliable data in response to a question or problem;
- analyses data sets to identify causal and correlational relationships, anomalies, and sources of error;
- selects appropriate data as evidence, interprets evidence with reference to models and/or theories, and provides evidence for conclusions;
- evaluates processes and claims, provides a critique with reference to evidence, and identifies possible improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe complex relationships and solve unfamiliar problems;
- communicates clearly and accurately in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific audiences and purposes.

**C.**

Chemistry concepts, models and applications

- describes how structure, bonding and energy transfers are related in chemical systems;
- describes how some factors change the structure and properties of chemical systems;
- describes a theory or model used to explain the system;
- applies theories or models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret problems, and make plausible predictions in familiar contexts.

Context

- describes the role of collaboration and review, and technologies, in the development of chemical science theories or models;
- discusses how chemical science has been used to meet needs and inform decision making, and some social, economic or ethical implications of these applications.

Chemistry inquiry skills

- designs and conducts safe, ethical investigations that collect valid data in response to a question or problem;
- analyses data to identify relationships, anomalies, and sources of error;
- selects data to demonstrate relationships linked to chemical science knowledge, and provides conclusions based on data;
- evaluates processes and claims, and suggests improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe relationships and solve problems;
- communicates clearly in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific purposes.

**D.**

Chemistry concepts, models and applications

- describes structure and bonding in substances ;
- describes how some factors affect chemical systems;
- identifies aspects of a theory or model related to the system;
- describes phenomena, interprets simple problems, and makes simple predictions in familiar contexts.

Context

- describes the role of communication and new evidence in developing chemical science knowledge;
- describes ways in which chemical science has been used in society to meet needs, and identifies some implications of these applications.

Chemistry inquiry skills

- plans and conducts safe, ethical investigations to collect data in response to a question or problem;
- analyses data to identify trends and anomalies;
- selects data to demonstrate trends, and presents simple conclusions based on data;
- considers processes and claims from a personal perspective;
- constructs and uses simple representations to describe relationships and solve simple problems;
- communicates in a range of modes and genres.

**E.**

Chemistry concepts, models and applications

- identifies observable properties of substances;
- identifies observable changes to chemical systems;
- identifies aspects of a theory or model related to parts of the system;
- describes phenomena and makes simple predictions in familiar, simple contexts.

Context

- identifies that chemical science knowledge has changed over time;
- identifies ways in which chemical science has been used in society to meet needs.

Chemistry inquiry skills

- follows a procedure to conduct safe, ethical investigations to collect data;
- identifies trends in data;
- selects data to demonstrate trends;
- considers claims from a personal perspective;
- constructs and uses simple representations to describe phenomena;
- communicates in a range of modes.

**Unit 1: Introduction to Earth systems**

The Earth system involves four interacting systems: the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. A change in any one ‘sphere’ can impact others at a range of temporal and spatial scales. In this unit, students build on their existing knowledge of Earth by exploring the development of understanding of Earth’s formation and its internal and surface structure. Students study the processes that formed the oceans and atmosphere. They review the origin and significance of water at Earth’s surface, how water moves through the hydrological cycle, and the environments influenced by water, in particular the oceans, the cryosphere and groundwater. Students will examine the formation of soils at Earth’s surface (the pedosphere) as a process that involves the interaction of all Earth systems.

Students critically examine the scientific evidence for the origin of life, linking this with their understanding of the evolution of Earth’s hydrosphere and atmosphere. They review evidence from the fossil record that demonstrates the interrelationships between major changes in Earth’s systems and the evolution and extinction of organisms. They investigate how the distribution and viability of life on Earth influences, and is influenced by, Earth systems.

Through the investigation of appropriate contexts, students explore how international collaboration, evidence from multiple disciplines and individuals and the development of ICT and other technologies have contributed to developing understanding of Earth systems. They investigate how scientific knowledge is used to offer valid explanations and reliable predictions, and the ways in which it interacts with social, economic and cultural factors.

Students use science inquiry skills that mirror the types of inquiry conducted to establish our contemporary understanding of Earth systems: they engage in a range of investigations that help them develop the field and research skills used by geoscientists, soil scientists, atmospheric scientists, hydrologists, ecologists and environmental chemists to interpret geological, historical and real-time scientific information.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the key features of Earth systems, how they are interrelated, and their collective 4.5 billion year history;
- understand scientific models and evidence for the structure and development of the solid Earth, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and the biosphere;
- understand how theories and models have developed based on evidence from multiple disciplines; and the uses and limitations of Earth and environmental science knowledge in a range of contexts;
- use science inquiry skills to collect, analyse and communicate primary and secondary data on Earth and environmental phenomena; and use these as analogues to deduce and analyse events that occurred in the past;
- evaluate, with reference to empirical evidence, claims about the structure, interactions and evolution of Earth systems;
- communicate Earth and environmental understanding using qualitative and quantitative representations in appropriate modes and genres.

**Science Inquiry Skills (Earth and Environmental Science Unit 1)**

Identify, research and construct questions for investigation; propose hypotheses; and predict possible outcomes.

Design investigations including the procedure/s to be followed, the information required and the type and amount of primary and/or secondary data to be collected; conduct risk assessments; and consider research ethics.

Conduct investigations, including using map and field location techniques and rock and soil sampling and identification procedures, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and reliable data.

Represent data in meaningful and useful ways; organise and analyse data to identify trends, patterns and relationships; qualitatively describe sources of measurement error, and uncertainty and limitations in data; and select, synthesise and use evidence to make and justify conclusions.

Interpret a range of scientific and media texts and evaluate processes, claims and conclusions by considering the quality of available evidence; use reasoning to construct scientific arguments.

Select, construct and use appropriate representations, including maps and cross sections to describe and analyse spatial relationships, and stratigraphy and isotopic half-life data to infer the age of rocks and fossils, to communicate conceptual understanding, solve problems and make predictions.

Communicate to specific audiences and for specific purposes using appropriate language, genres and modes, including compilations of field data and research reports.

**Science as a Human Endeavour (Units 1 & 2)**

The use of scientific knowledge may have beneficial and/or harmful and/or unintended consequences.

**Development of the geosphere**

Observation of present day processes can be used to infer past events and processes by applying the Principle of Uniformitarianism.

A relative geological time scale can be constructed using stratigraphic principles including superposition, cross cutting relationships, inclusions and correlation.

Precise dates can be assigned to points on the relative geological time scale using data derived from the decay of radioisotopes in rocks and minerals; this establishes an absolute time scale and places the age of the Earth at 4.5 billion years.

Earth has internally differentiated into a layered structure: a solid metallic inner core, a liquid metallic outer core and a silicate mantle and crust; the study of seismic waves and meteorites provides evidence for this structure.

Rocks are composed of characteristic assemblages of mineral crystals or grains that are formed through igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes, as part of the rock cycle.

Soil formation requires interaction between atmospheric, geologic, hydrologic and biotic processes; soil is composed of rock and mineral particles, organic material, water, gases and living organisms.

**Development of the atmosphere and hydrosphere**

The atmosphere was derived from volcanic outgassing during cooling and differentiation of Earth and its composition has been significantly modified by the actions of photosynthesising organisms.

The modern atmosphere has a layered structure characterised by changes in temperature: the troposphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and thermosphere.

Water is present on the surface of Earth as a result of volcanic outgassing and impact by icy bodies from space; water occurs in three phases (solid, liquid, gas) on Earth’s surface.

Water’s unique properties, including its boiling point, density in solid and liquid phase, surface tension and its ability to act a solvent, and its abundance at the surface of Earth make it an important component of Earth system processes (for example, precipitation, ice sheet formation, evapotranspiration, solution of salts).

**Development of the biosphere**

Fossil evidence indicates that life first appeared on Earth approximately 4 billion years ago.

Laboratory experimentation has informed theories that life emerged under anoxic atmospheric conditions in an aqueous mixture of inorganic compounds, either in a shallow water setting as a result of lightning strike or in an ocean floor setting due to hydrothermal activity.

In any one location, the characteristics (for example, temperature, surface water, substrate, organisms, available light) and interactions of the atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere give rise to unique and dynamic communities.

The characteristics of past environments and communities (for example, presence of water, nature of the substrate, organism assemblages) can be inferred from the sequence and internal textures of sedimentary rocks and enclosed fossils.

The diversification and proliferation of living organisms over time (for example, increases in marine animals in the Cambrian), and the catastrophic collapse of ecosystems (for example, the mass extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous) can be inferred from the fossil record.

**Unit 2: Earth processes – energy transfers and transformations**

Earth system processes require energy. In this unit, students explore how the transfer and transformation of energy from the sun and Earth’s interior enable and control processes within and between the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Students examine how the transfer and transformation of heat and gravitational energy in Earth’s interior drive movements of Earth’s tectonic plates. They analyse how the transfer of solar energy to Earth is influenced by the structure of the atmosphere; how air masses and ocean water move as a result of solar energy transfer and transformation to cause global weather patterns; and how changes in these atmospheric and oceanic processes can result in anomalous weather patterns.

Students use their knowledge of the photosynthetic process to understand the transformation of sunlight into other energy forms that are useful for living things. They study how energy transfer and transformation in ecosystems are modelled and they review how biogeochemical cycling of matter in environmental systems involves energy use and energy storage.

Through the investigation of appropriate contexts, students explore how international collaboration, evidence from multiple disciplines and individuals and the development of ICT and other technologies have contributed to developing understanding of the energy transfers and transformations within and between Earth systems. They investigate how scientific knowledge is used to offer valid explanations and reliable predictions, and the ways in which it interacts with social, economic and cultural factors, including the design of action for sustainability.

Students use inquiry skills to collect, analyse and interpret data relating to energy transfers and transformations and cycling of matter and make inferences about the factors causing changes to movements of energy and matter in Earth systems.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand how energy is transferred and transformed in Earth systems, the factors that influence these processes, and the dynamics of energy loss and gain;
- understand how energy transfers and transformations influence oceanic, atmospheric and biogeochemical cycling;
- understand how theories and models have developed based on evidence from multiple disciplines; and the uses and limitations of Earth and environmental science knowledge in a range of contexts;
- use science inquiry skills to collect, analyse and communicate primary and secondary data on energy transfers and transformations between and within Earth systems;
- evaluate, with reference to empirical evidence, claims about energy transfers and transformations between and within Earth systems;
- communicate Earth and environmental understanding using qualitative and quantitative representations in appropriate modes and genres.

**Science Inquiry Skills (Earth and Environmental Science Unit 2)**

Design investigations including the procedure/s to be followed, the information required and the type and amount of primary and/or secondary data to be collected; conduct risk assessments; and consider research ethics.

Conduct investigations, including using map and field location techniques and environmental sampling procedures, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and reliable data.

Interpret a range of scientific and media texts and evaluate processes, claims and conclusions by considering the quality of available evidence; use reasoning to construct scientific arguments.

Select, construct and use appropriate representations, including maps and other spatial representations, diagrams and flow charts, to communicate conceptual understanding, solve problems and make predictions.

Communicate to specific audiences and for specific purposes using appropriate language, genres and modes, including compilations of field data and research reports.

**Science as a Human Endeavour (Units 1 & 2)**

The use of scientific knowledge may have beneficial and/or harmful and/or unintended consequences.

**Energy for Earth processes**

Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one form to another (for example, kinetic, gravitational, thermal, light) and transferred between objects.

Processes within and between Earth systems require energy that originates either from the sun or the interior of Earth.

Thermal and light energy from the Sun drives important Earth processes including evaporation and photosynthesis.

Transfers and transformations of heat and gravitational energy in Earth’s interior drives the movement of tectonic plates through processes including mantle convection, plume formation and slab sinking.

**Energy for atmospheric and hydrologic processes**

The net transfer of solar energy to Earth’s surface is influenced by its passage through the atmosphere, including impeded transfer of ultraviolet radiation to Earth’s surface due to its interaction with atmospheric ozone, and by the physical characteristics of Earth’s surface, including albedo.

Most of the thermal radiation emitted from Earth’s surface passes back out into space but some is reflected or scattered by greenhouse gases back toward Earth; this additional surface warming produces a phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect.

The movement of atmospheric air masses due to heating and cooling, and Earth’s rotation and revolution, cause systematic atmospheric circulation; this is the dominant mechanism for the transfer of thermal energy around Earth’s surface.

The behaviour of the global oceans as a heat sink, and Earth’s rotation and revolution, cause systematic ocean currents; these are described by the global ocean conveyor model.

The interaction between Earth’s atmosphere and oceans changes over time and can result in anomalous global weather patterns, including El Nino and La Nina.

**Energy for biogeochemical processes**

Photosynthesis is the principal mechanism for the transformation of energy from the sun into energy forms that are useful for living things; net primary production is a description of the rate at which new biomass is generated, mainly through photosynthesis.

The availability of energy and matter are one of the main determinants of ecosystem carrying capacity; that is, the number of organisms that can be supported in an ecosystem.

Biogeochemical cycling of matter, including nitrogen and phosphorus, involves the transfer and transformation of energy between the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.

Energy is stored, transferred and transformed in the carbon cycle; biological elements, including living and dead organisms, store energy over relatively short timescales, and geological elements (for example, hydrocarbons, coal and kerogens) store energy for extended periods.

**Earth and Environmental Science – Unit 1 and Unit 2**

**A.**

Earth and Environmental Science concepts, models and applications

- analyses how Earth systems and their components are inter-related across a range of spatial scales, and how they have changed over time;
- analyses how cycling of matter and transfers and transformations of energy are interrelated within and between Earth systems across a range of temporal and spatial scales;
- explains the theories and model/s used to explain the system and the aspects of the system they include;
- applies theories and models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret complex problems and make reasoned, plausible predictions in unfamiliar contexts.

Context

- analyses the role of collaboration, debate and review, and technologies, in the development of Earth and environmental theories and models
- evaluates how Earth and environmental science has been used in concert with other sciences to meet diverse needs and inform decision making; and how these applications are influenced by interacting social, economic and ethical factors.

Earth and Environmental Science inquiry skills

- designs, conducts and improves safe, ethical investigations that efficiently collect valid, reliable data in response to a complex question or problem;
- analyses data sets to explain causal and correlational relationships, the reliability of the data and sources of error;
- justifies their selection of data as evidence, analyses evidence with reference to models and/or theories and develops evidence-based conclusions that identify limitations;
- evaluates processes and claims; provides an evidence-based critique and discussion of improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe complex relationships and solve complex and unfamiliar problems ;
- communicates effectively and accurately in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific audiences and purposes.

**B.**

Earth and Environmental Science concepts, models and applications

- explains how Earth system components are inter-related and how they have changed over time;
- explains how cycling of matter and transfers and transformations of energy occur between and within Earth systems;
- describes the theories and model/s used to explain the system;
- applies theories and models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret problems and make plausible predictions in unfamiliar contexts.

Context

- explains the role of collaboration, debate and review, and technologies, in the development of Earth and environmental theories and models;
- explains how Earth and environmental science has been used to meet diverse needs and inform decision making; and how these applications are influenced by social, economic and ethical factors.

Earth and Environmental Science inquiry skills

- designs, conducts and improves safe, ethical investigations that collect valid, reliable data in response to a question or problem;
- analyses data sets to identify causal and correlational relationships, anomalies and sources of error;
- selects appropriate data as evidence, interprets evidence with reference to models and/or theories and provides evidence for conclusions;
- evaluates processes and claims; provides a critique with reference to evidence and identifies possible improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe complex relationships and solve unfamiliar problems;
- communicates clearly and accurately in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific audiences and purposes.

**C.**

Earth and Environmental Science concepts, models and applications

- describes Earth system components and how they have changed over time;
- describes the ways in which matter and energy move within and between Earth systems;
- describes a theory or model used to explain the system;
- applies theories or models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret problems and make plausible predictions in familiar contexts.

Context

- describes the role of collaboration and review, and technologies, in the development of Earth and environmental theories or models;
- discusses how Earth and environmental science has been used to meet needs and inform decision making, and some social, economic or ethical implications of these applications.

Earth and Environmental Science inquiry skills

- designs and conducts safe, ethical investigations that collect valid data in response to a question or problem;
- analyses data to identify relationships, anomalies and sources of error;
- selects data to demonstrate relationships linked to Earth and environmental knowledge and provides conclusions based on data;
- evaluates processes and claims and suggests improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe relationships and solve problems;
- communicates clearly in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific purposes.

**D.**

Earth and Environmental Science concepts, models and applications

- identifies Earth system components;
- identifies processes that cause change in Earth systems;
- identifies aspects of a theory or model related to the system;
- describes phenomena, interprets simple problems and makes simple predictions in familiar contexts.

Context

- describes the role of communication and new evidence in the development of Earth and environmental knowledge;
- describes ways in which Earth and environmental science has been used in society to meet needs and identifies some implications of these applications.

Earth and Environmental Science inquiry skills

- plans and conducts safe, ethical investigations to collect data in response to a question or problem;
- analyses data to identify trends and anomalies;
- selects data to demonstrate trends and presents simple conclusions based on data;
- considers processes and claims from a personal perspective;
- constructs and uses simple representations to describe relationships and solve simple problems;
- communicates in a range of modes and genres.

**E.**

Earth and Environmental Science concepts, models and applications

- identifies some parts of the Earth system;
- describes some observable Earth processes;
- identifies aspects of a theory or model related to parts of the system;
- describes phenomena and makes simple predictions in familiar, simple contexts.

Context

- identifies that Earth and environmental knowledge has changed over time;
- identifies ways in which Earth and environmental science has been used in society to meet needs.

Earth and Environmental Science inquiry skills

- follows a procedure to conduct safe, ethical investigations to collect data
- identifies trends in data;
- selects data to demonstrate trends;
- considers claims from a personal perspective;
- constructs and uses simple representations to describe phenomena;
- communicates in a range of modes.

**Unit 1: Thermal, nuclear and electrical physics**

An understanding of heating processes, nuclear reactions and electricity is essential to appreciate how global energy needs are met. In this unit, students explore the ways physics is used to describe, explain and predict the energy transfers and transformations that are pivotal to modern industrial societies. Students investigate heating processes, apply the nuclear model of the atom to investigate radioactivity, and learn how nuclear reactions convert mass into energy. They examine the movement of electrical charge in circuits and use this to analyse, explain and predict electrical phenomena.

Contexts that could be investigated in this unit include technologies related to nuclear, thermal, or geothermal energy, electrical energy production, large-scale power systems, radiopharmaceuticals and electricity in the home; and related areas of science such as nuclear fusion in stars and the Big Bang theory.

Through the investigation of appropriate contexts, students understand how applying scientific knowledge to the challenge of meeting world energy needs requires the international cooperation of multidisciplinary teams and relies on advances in ICT and other technologies. They explore how science knowledge is used to offer valid explanations and reliable predictions, and the ways in which it interacts with social, economic, cultural and ethical factors.

Students develop skills in interpreting, constructing and using a range of mathematical and symbolic representations to describe, explain and predict energy transfers and transformations in heating processes, nuclear reactions and electrical circuits. They develop their inquiry skills through primary and secondary investigations, including analysing heat transfer, heat capacity, radioactive decay and a range of simple electrical circuits.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand how the kinetic particle model and thermodynamics concepts describe and explain heating processes;
- understand how the nuclear model of the atom explains radioactivity, fission, fusion and the properties of radioactive nuclides;
- understand how charge is involved in the transfer and transformation of energy in electrical circuits;
- understand how scientific models and theories have developed and are applied to improve existing, and develop new, technologies;
- use science inquiry skills to design, conduct and analyse safe and effective investigations into heating processes, nuclear physics and electrical circuits, and to communicate methods and findings;
- use algebraic and graphical representations to calculate, analyse and predict measurable quantities associated with heating processes, nuclear reactions and electrical circuits;
- evaluate, with reference to empirical evidence, claims about heating processes, nuclear reactions and electrical technologies;
- communicate physics understanding using qualitative and quantitative representations in appropriate modes and genres.

**Science Inquiry Skills**

Identify, research, construct and refine questions for investigation; propose hypotheses; and predict possible outcomes.

Design investigations, including the procedure/s to be followed, the materials required, and the type and amount of primary and/or secondary data to be collected; conduct risk assessments; and consider research ethics.

Conduct investigations, including using temperature, current and potential difference measuring devices, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and reliable data.

Represent data in meaningful and useful ways, including using appropriate Système Internationale (SI) units and symbols; organise and analyse data to identify trends, patterns and relationships; identify sources of random and systematic error and estimate their effect on measurement results; identify anomalous data and calculate the measurement discrepancy between experimental results and a currently accepted value, expressed as a percentage; and select, synthesise and use evidence to make and justify conclusions.

Select, construct and use appropriate representations, including text and graphic representations of empirical and theoretical relationships, flow diagrams, nuclear equations and circuit diagrams, to communicate conceptual understanding, solve problems and make predictions.

Select, use and interpret appropriate mathematical representations, including linear and non-linear graphs and algebraic relationships representing physical systems, to solve problems and make predictions.

**Science as a Human Endeavour (Units 1 & 2)**

The use of scientific knowledge may have beneficial and/or harmful and/or unintended consequences.

**Heating processes**

Heat transfer occurs between and within systems by conduction, convection and/or radiation.

The kinetic particle model describes matter as consisting of particles in constant motion, except at absolute zero.

All systems have thermal energy due to the motion of particles in the system.

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in a system.

Provided a substance does not change state, its temperature change is proportional to the amount of energy added to or removed from the substance; the constant of proportionality describes the heat capacity of the substance.

Change of state involves internal energy changes to form or break bonds between atoms or molecules; latent heat is the energy required to be added to or removed from a system to change the state of the system.

Two systems in contact transfer energy between particles so that eventually the systems reach the same temperature; that is, they are in thermal equilibrium.

A system with thermal energy has the capacity to do mechanical work (that is, to apply a force over a distance); when work is done, the internal energy of the system changes.

Because energy is conserved, the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the energy added or removed by heating plus the work done on or by the system.

Energy transfers and transformations in mechanical systems (for example, internal and external combustion engines, electric motors) always result in some heat loss to the environment, so that the usable energy is reduced and the system cannot be 100 percent efficient.

**Ionising radiation and nuclear reactions**

The nuclear model of the atom describes the atom as consisting of an extremely small nucleus, which contains most of the atom’s mass and is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons surrounded by negatively charged electrons.

Nuclear stability is the result of the strong nuclear force, which operates between nucleons over a very short distance and opposes the electrostatic repulsion between protons in the nucleus.

Some nuclides are unstable and spontaneously decay, emitting alpha, beta and/or gamma radiation over time until they become stable nuclides.

Each species of radionuclide has a specific half-life.

Alpha, beta and gamma radiation have sufficient energy to ionise atoms.

Einstein’s mass/energy relationship, which applies to all energy changes, enables the energy released in nuclear reactions to be determined from the mass change in the reaction.

Alpha and beta decay are examples of spontaneous transmutation reactions, while artificial transmutation is a managed process that changes one nuclide into another.

Neutron-induced nuclear fission is a reaction in which a heavy nuclide captures a neutron and then splits into two smaller radioactive nuclides, with the release of neutrons and energy.

A fission chain reaction is a self-sustaining process that may be controlled to produce thermal energy, or uncontrolled to release energy explosively.

Nuclear fusion is a reaction in which light nuclides combine to form a heavier nuclide, with the release of energy.

More energy is released per nucleon in nuclear fusion than in nuclear fission because a greater percentage of the mass is transformed into energy.

**Electrical Circuits**

Electrical circuits enable electrical energy to be transferred efficiently over large distances and transformed into a range of other useful forms of energy including thermal and kinetic energy, and light.

Electric current is carried by discrete charge carriers; charge is conserved at all points in an electrical circuit.

Energy is conserved in the energy transfers and transformations that occur in an electrical circuit.

The energy available to charges moving in an electrical circuit is measured using electric potential difference, which is defined as the change in potential energy per unit charge between two defined points in the circuit.

Energy is required to separate positive and negative charge carriers; charge separation produces an electrical potential difference that can be used to drive current in circuits.

Power is the rate at which energy is transformed by a circuit component; power enables quantitative analysis of energy transformations in the circuit.

Resistance for ohmic and non-ohmic components is defined as the ratio of potential difference across the component to the current in the component.

Circuit analysis and design involve calculation of the potential difference across, the current in, and the power supplied to, components in series, parallel and series/parallel circuits.

**Unit 2: Linear Motion and Waves**

In this unit, students develop an appreciation of how an understanding of motion and waves can be used to describe, explain and predict a wide range of phenomena. Students describe linear motion in terms of position and time data, and examine the relationships between force, momentum and energy for interactions in one dimension.

Students investigate common wave phenomena, including waves on springs, and water, sound and earthquake waves, and compare the behaviour of these waves with the behaviour of light. This leads to an explanation of light phenomena, including polarisation, interference and diffraction, in terms of a wave model.

Contexts that could be investigated in this unit include technologies such as accelerometers, motion-detectors, photo radar, GPS, energy conversion buoys, music, hearing aids, echo locators, fibre optics, DVDs and lasers, and related areas of science and engineering such as sports science, car and road safety, acoustic design, noise pollution, seismology, bridge and building design.

Through the investigation of appropriate contexts, students explore how international collaboration, evidence from a range of disciplines and many individuals, and the development of ICT and other technologies have contributed to developing understanding of motion and waves and associated technologies. They investigate how scientific knowledge is used to offer valid explanations and reliable predictions, and the ways in which it interacts with social, economic, cultural and ethical factors.

Students develop their understanding of motion and wave phenomena through laboratory investigations. They develop skills in relating graphical representations of data to quantitative relationships between variables, and they continue to develop skills in planning, conducting and interpreting the results of primary and secondary investigations.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand that Newton’s Laws of Motion describe the relationship between the forces acting on an object and its motion;
- understand that waves transfer energy and that a wave model can be used to explain the behaviour of sound and light;
- understand how scientific models and theories have developed and are applied to improve existing, and develop new, technologies;
- use science inquiry skills to design, conduct and analyse safe and effective investigations into linear motion and wave phenomena, and to communicate methods and findings;
- use algebraic and graphical representations to calculate, analyse and predict measurable quantities associated with linear and wave motion;
- evaluate, with reference to evidence, claims about motion, sound and light-related phenomena and associated technologies;
- communicate physics understanding using qualitative and quantitative representations in appropriate modes and genres.

**Science Inquiry Skills**

Design investigations, including the procedure to be followed, the materials required, and the type and amount of primary and/or secondary data to be collected; conduct risk assessments; and consider research ethics.

Conduct investigations, including the manipulation of devices to measure motion and the direction of light rays, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and reliable data.

Represent data in meaningful and useful ways, including using appropriate SI units and symbols; organise and analyse data to identify trends, patterns and relationships; identify sources of random and systematic error and estimate their effect on measurement results; identify anomalous data and calculate the measurement discrepancy between the experimental results and a currently accepted value, expressed as a percentage; and select, synthesise and use evidence to make and justify conclusions.

Select, construct and use appropriate representations, including text and graphic representations of empirical and theoretical relationships, vector diagrams, free body/force diagrams, wave diagrams and ray diagrams, to communicate conceptual understanding, solve problems and make predictions.

Select, use and interpret appropriate mathematical representations, including linear and non-linear graphs and algebraic relationships representing physical systems, to solve problems and make predictions.

**Science as a Human Endeavour (Units 1 & 2)**

The use of scientific knowledge may have beneficial and/or harmful and/or unintended consequences.

**Linear motion and force**

Uniformly accelerated motion is described in terms of relationships between measurable scalar and vector quantities, including displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration.

Representations, including graphs and vectors, and/or equations of motion, can be used qualitatively and quantitatively to describe and predict linear motion.

Vertical motion is analysed by assuming the acceleration due to gravity is constant near Earth’s surface.

Newton’s Three Laws of Motion describe the relationship between the force or forces acting on an object, modelled as a point mass, and the motion of the object due to the application of the force or forces.

Momentum is a property of moving objects; it is conserved in a closed system and may be transferred from one object to another when a force acts over a time interval.

Energy is conserved in isolated systems and is transferred from one object to another when a force is applied over a distance; this causes work to be done and changes to kinetic and/or potential energy of objects.

Collisions may be elastic and inelastic; kinetic energy is conserved in elastic collisions.

**Waves**

Waves are periodic oscillations that transfer energy from one point to another.

Longitudinal and transverse waves are distinguished by the relationship between the direction of oscillation relative to the direction of the wave velocity.

Waves may be represented by time and displacement wave diagrams and described in terms of relationships between measurable quantities, including period, amplitude, wavelength, frequency and velocity.

Mechanical waves transfer energy through a medium; mechanical waves may oscillate the medium or oscillate the pressure within the medium.

The mechanical wave model can be used to explain phenomena related to reflection and refraction (for example, echoes, seismic phenomena).

The superposition of waves in a medium may lead to the formation of standing waves and interference phenomena, including standing waves in pipes and on stretched strings.

A mechanical system resonates when it is driven at one of its natural frequencies of oscillation; energy is transferred efficiently into systems under these conditions.

Light exhibits many wave properties; however, it cannot be modelled as a mechanical wave because it can travel through a vacuum.

A ray model of light may be used to describe reflection, refraction and image formation from lenses and mirrors.

A wave model explains a wide range of light-related phenomena including reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, dispersion, diffraction and interference; a transverse wave model is required to explain polarisation.

The speed of light is finite and many orders of magnitude greater than the speed of mechanical waves (for example, sound and water waves); its intensity decreases in an inverse square relationship with distance from a point source.

**Physics – Unit 1 and Unit 2**

**A.**

Physics concepts, models and applications

- analyses physical phenomena in complex scenarios qualitatively and quantitatively;
- analyses the relationships between components and properties of physical systems qualitatively and quantitatively;
- applies theories and models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret complex problems, and make reasoned, plausible predictions in unfamiliar contexts.

Context

- analyses the roles of collaboration, debate and review, and technologies, in the development of physical science theories and models
- evaluates how physical science has been used in concert with other sciences to meet diverse needs and to inform decision making, and how these applications are influenced by interacting social, economic and ethical factors.

Physics inquiry skills

- analyses data sets to explain causal and correlational relationships, the reliability of the data and sources of error;
- justifies their selection of data as evidence, analyses evidence with reference to models and/or theories, and develops evidence-based conclusions that identify limitations;
- evaluates processes and claims, and provides an evidence-based critique and discussion of improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe complex relationships and solve complex and unfamiliar problems;

**B.**

Physics concepts, models and applications

- explains physical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively;
- explains the relationships between components and properties of physical systems qualitatively and quantitatively;
- describes the theories and model/s used to explain the system;
- applies theories and models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret problems, and make plausible predictions in unfamiliar contexts.

Context

- explains the roles of collaboration, debate and review, and technologies, in the development of physical science theories and models;
- explains how physical science has been used to meet diverse needs and to inform decision making, and how these applications are influenced by social, economic and ethical factors.

Physics inquiry skills

- analyses data sets to identify causal and correlational relationships, anomalies, and sources of error;
- selects appropriate data as evidence, interprets evidence with reference to models and/or theories, and provides evidence for conclusions;
- evaluates processes and claims, provides a critique with reference to evidence, and identifies possible improvements or alternatives;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe complex relationships and solve unfamiliar problems;
- communicates clearly and accurately in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific audiences and purposes.

**C.**

Physics concepts, models and applications

- describes physical phenomena in simple scenarios qualitatively and quantitatively;
- describes the relationships between components and properties of physical systems qualitatively;
- describes a theory or model used to explain the system;
- applies theories or models of systems and processes to explain phenomena, interpret problems, and make plausible predictions in familiar contexts.

Context

- describes the roles of collaboration, review, and technologies, in the development of physical science theories or models;
- discusses how physical science has been used to meet needs and to inform decision making, and discusses some social, economic or ethical implications of these applications.

Physics inquiry skills

- analyses data to identify relationships, anomalies, and sources of error;
- selects data to demonstrate relationships linked to physical science knowledge, and provides conclusions based on data;
- evaluates processes and claims, and suggests improvements or alternatives;
- communicates clearly in a range of modes, styles and genres for specific purposes.

**D.**

Physics concepts, models and applications

- describes physical phenomena in simple scenarios qualitatively;
- describes how components of physical systems are related;
- identifies aspects of a theory or model related to the system;
- describes phenomena, interprets simple problems, and makes simple predictions in familiar contexts.

Context

- describes the roles of communication and new evidence in developing physical science knowledge;
- describes ways in which physical science has been used in society to meet needs, and identifies some implications of these applications.

Physics inquiry skills

- analyses data to identify trends and anomalies;
- selects data to demonstrate trends, and presents simple conclusions based on data;
- considers processes and claims from a personal perspective;
- constructs and uses simple representations to describe relationships and solve simple problems;
- communicates in a range of modes and genres.

**E.**

Physics concepts, models and applications

- Identifies properties of physical phenomena;
- identifies components of physical systems;
- identifies aspects of a theory or model related to parts of the system;
- describes phenomena and makes simple predictions in familiar, simple contexts.

Context

- identifies that physical science knowledge has changed over time;
- identifies ways in which physical science has been used in society to meet needs.

Physics inquiry skills

- follows a procedure to conduct safe, ethical investigations to collect data;
- identifies trends in data;
- selects data to demonstrate trends;
- considers claims from a personal perspective;
- constructs and uses simple representations to describe phenomena;
- communicates in a range of modes.

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

ENGLISH · MATHEMATICS · SCIENCE · HUMANITIES |

**Unit 1: Investigating the Ancient World**

This unit involves an investigation of how the ancient world has been represented. This involves an exploration of the remaining sources and how they have been interpreted. This unit focuses on issues relevant to the investigation of the ancient world and builds on the historical skills developed in the Foundation to Year 10 curriculum to develop an introduction to historiography. Students will study at least TWO issues related to evidence including the authentication, preservation, ownership and/or display of material from the ancient world. Students also study how evidence has been used in interpretations and representations of ONE ancient site, event or change, individual or group through to modern times.

This study provides an opportunity to explore key artifacts, events, legends, personalities and controversies of the ancient world, focusing on an analysis and evaluation of the differing ways in which they have been interpreted and represented from ancient to modern times. Students investigate the past through an examination of issues relevant to the nature of the evidence including the ethical practice, ownership and representation of the ancient world. The key conceptual understandings of this unit include: the reliability and usefulness of sources, custodianship of the past, interpretations and representations.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the nature of evidence of the ancient past (of a site, event or change, individual or group) and issues relating to the reliability and usefulness of the evidence in interpreting, and constructing representations of that past;
- understand issues related to the ownership, custodianship, preservation and display of material from the ancient past;
- apply key concepts as part of a historical inquiry, including evidence, perspectives, interpretation, and representation;
- use historical skills to investigate different representations of the ancient world, and use a range of evidence to support and communicate a historical explanation or argument.

**Historical Skills**

All the following skills will be studied during this unit. Relevant skills will be emphasised for each topic.

**Chronology, terms and concepts**

Identify links between events to understand the nature and significance of causation, change and continuity over time.

Use historical terms and concepts in appropriate contexts to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.

**Historical questions and research**

Formulate, test and modify propositions to investigate historical issues.

Frame questions to guide inquiry and develop a coherent research plan for inquiry.

Identify, locate and organise relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources.

Identify and practise ethical scholarship when conducting research.

**Analysis and use of sources**

Identify the origin, purpose and context of historical sources.

Analyse, interpret and synthesise evidence from different types of sources to develop and sustain a historical argument.

Evaluate the reliability, usefulness and contestability of sources to develop informed judgments that support a historical argument.

**Perspectives and interpretations**

Analyse and account for the different perspectives of individuals and groups in the past.

Evaluate critically different historical interpretations of the past, how they evolved, and how they are shaped by the historian’s perspective.

Evaluate contested views about the past to understand the provisional nature of historical knowledge and to arrive at reasoned and supported conclusions.

**Explanation and communication**

Develop texts that integrate appropriate evidence from a range of sources to explain the past and to support and refute arguments.

Communicate historical understanding by selecting and using text forms appropriate to the purpose and audience.

Apply appropriate referencing techniques accurately and consistently.

**Historical knowledge and understanding**

Students investigate the significant issues related to at least TWO of the following topics:

- Historical authentication and reliability;
- Preservation, conservation, and/or reconstruction of ancient sites;
- Cultural heritage, ownership and the role of museums;
- Treatment and display of human remains;

AND

Students study how at least ONE ancient site, event or change, individual or group, chosen from the following topic electives, has been interpreted and represented:

Ancient Site |
Events and Changes |
Individual |
Group |

Ancient Thera (Santorini) | The battle of Kadesh | Alexander the Great | The Celts |

Masada | The destruction of Troy | Cleopatra | Early Christians |

Fall of the Roman Empire in the West | Cao Cao | ||

The Roman Games |

There are opportunities to make connections between the significant issues and the ancient site, events and changes, individual or group studied, for example the historical authentication and reliability of Homer’s Iliad as evidence for the destruction of Troy.

An alternative study of an ancient site, event, individual or group may be up to circa AD 650 from any part of the world, for example Lake Mungo; the Classical Maya; the Etruscans; Hannibal; Ashoka the Great; Boudicca, the assassination of Julius Caesar. Any topic other than the suggested topic electives should be chosen on the basis that the ancient site, events and changes, individual or group has been interpreted and represented in different ways, and has been the subject of some controversy.

Students study at least TWO of the following, which are to be taught with the requisite historical skills described at the start of this unit:

**Historical authentication and reliability**

How evidence from the ancient world has been lost, destroyed and re-discovered.

Problems of authenticity, including the identification and origin of ancient artefacts, human remains and documents; and the reliability of ancient writers who did not witness the events they describe.

Methods of authentication, including scientific and comparative dating techniques for documents and objects and cross-referencing of ancient sources.

Ancient sources that have been deemed to be fakes or forgeries over time and the difficulties of authentication associated with these sources.

The motivations of the perpetrators of fakes and forgeries, and the significance of the evidence they were intended to provide about the ancient past.

Preservation, conservation, and/or reconstruction of ancient sites.

The nature of the site/s, and the condition and extent of the remains.

Issues of conservation and preservation of the site/s, including factors which threaten the integrity or survival of the ancient site (for example environmental factors, war, terrorism, pillaging, poverty).

The effectiveness/appropriateness of methods used to preserve, conserve and/or reconstruct the site/s, including relevant national or international charters or conventions (for example, UNESCO) and international efforts to protect ancient sites of world heritage significance.

The reconstructions of the ancient site/s, for example paintings, historical fiction, film, documentaries, museum displays, and virtual worlds; and use for propaganda.

Cultural heritage, ownership and the role of museums.

The nature and significance of the cultural property for the society to which it belongs.

The arguments for and against the return of the cultural property to its original home.

The nature and impact of looting and the illegal trade of antiquities on cultural heritage.

The role of museums in acquiring, collecting, and storing artefacts/cultural materials.

The contributions of museums to our understanding of ancient ways of life and the question of whose past is represented in museum displays and exhibitions.

**Treatment and display of human remains**

The condition of the human remains and how they were preserved, discovered and/or removed from where they were found.

The methods and results of scientific analysis (forensic techniques) and modern preservation of the remains.

The significance of the human remains for an understanding of the life and times in which they lived, including the social status of individuals, the beliefs and practices of the society, the health of ancient populations, and the nature of the environment.

The ethical issues relevant to the treatment, display and ownership of the remains, for example the use of invasive methods of scientific analysis.

Students study at least ONE ancient site, event, individual or group, from the following, which is to be taught with the requisite historical skills described at the start of this unit:

**Ancient Thera (Santorini)**

The geographic and historical context of Ancient Thera, including the location of Thera/Santorini in relation to mainland Greece and Crete, the Bronze-Age Aegean period, the origins of the Theran settlement, the rediscovery of Akrotiri and excavations at the site.

The nature of the sources most relevant to these interpretations and representations, for example Plato’s dialogues about Atlantis (Timaeus and Critias c.360 BC), the Akrotiri wall paintings (the Spring Fresco, the Naval Campaign Fresco, The Young Boxers and the Fisherman Fresco), pottery, sculpture and other artefacts, and the site layout and architecture for Thera and Akrotiri.

The different interpretations and representations of Thera and the eruption (from the ancient past, to the more recent past, to today), including the portrayal of Ancient Thera as the legendary Atlantis, the significance of the site as a trading or religious settlement, the relationship of ancient Thera to the Minoan civilisation on Crete, and the extent of the impact of the Theran eruption on the Minoan civilisation on Crete and on the wider Mediterranean world.

The historical context of the interpretations and representations of Ancient Thera and why these have changed over time, including the legends surrounding the Aegean volcanic island of Thera, the role of scientific research into the date and size of the Theran earthquakes and eruption, the evolving portrayal of Akrotiri’s features and its significance as a result of archaeological excavation and analysis.

The reliability and contestability of the interpretations and representations of ancient Thera, including the written and archaeological evidence for the Atlantis legend, the dating of the Theran eruption and the extent of its impact, the interpretation of the Akrotiri wall paintings, the commercial and religious significance of the Theran sites, and the significance of source selection, omission, emphasis and gaps in evidence.

**Masada**

The geographic and historical context of Masada, including its location and physical features, an overview of the Roman control of Judaea and the organisation of the province, the problems between the Jews and the Romans leading to the outbreak of war, the course of the siege of Masada, the role of Jewish rebels, and the Roman occupation of Masada.

The nature of the sources most relevant to these interpretations and representations, for example Josephus Flavius’ The Jewish War, written and archaeological evidence for Roman military tactics and siege warfare, and the excavation work of Yigael Yadin.

The different interpretations and representations of Masada (from the ancient past to the more recent past, to today) including the notion of the event as a Roman victory, and re-evaluations of Masada as a symbol of Jewish persecution.

The historical context of the interpretations and representations of Masada and why these have changed over time.

The reliability and contestability of the interpretations and representations of Masada, including the accuracy of Josephus Flavius’ account in The Jewish War, debates about the meaning of the events at Masada in AD 73-74, the role of archaeology, and the significance of source selection, omission, emphasis and gaps in evidence.

**The Battle of Kadesh**

The geographic and historical context of the Battle of Kadesh in the reign of Rameses II, including the nature of the Egyptian empire, Hittite expansion, the location of the battle on the Orontes river, and the causes and course of the battle.

The nature of the sources most relevant to these interpretations and representations, for example the reliefs of the battle in the Abu Simbel temple, inscriptions including the ‘Poem’ and the ‘Bulletin’, the references to the battle in Hittite texts, the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty inscription; and the significance of the sources in the reconstruction of the battle.

The different interpretations and representations of the Battle of Kadesh (from the ancient past, to the more recent past, to today), including the portrayal of the battle by Rameses II as a decisive Egyptian victory, and more recent portrayals of the battle as a stalemate.

The historical context of the interpretations and representations of the Battle of Kadesh and why these have changed, for example the importance of the warrior pharaoh ideal in Rameses II’s depiction of events.

The reliability and contestability of the interpretations and representations of the Battle of Kadesh, including the role of Rameses II in the battle; and the significance of source selection, omission, emphasis and gaps in evidence.

**The destruction of Troy**

The geographic and historical context of the destruction of the Troy, evidence of different layers of Troy throughout the ancient past, including Anotalian (Troy I-V) Bronze Age (Troy VI and VII), and ancient civilisations linked to Troy: Bronze Age Greece, the Myceneans and Hittite Empire in 13th Century BC, King Hattusili and the Ahhiyawa Kingdom.

The nature of the sources most relevant to the representations portrayed, for example the Homer’s Iliad; archaeological evidence from Mycenae; Hissarlik/Troy and the foreign office records of the Hittites including the Manapu-Tarhunda letter and Tawagalawa Letter; the discoveries at Troy by Schliemann, Dörpfeld, Blegen; the significance of the sources in the reconstruction of the Trojan War; and the evidence that Wilusa is Troy.

The differing representations and interpretations of the destruction of Troy (from the ancient past, to the more recent past, to today), including the tradition of the ‘Trojan War’; the role of Paris and Helen in the Trojan War; and that Troy was destroyed by earthquake and fire (Dörpfeld’s reinterpretation of Troy II and VI),

The historical context of the representations and interpretations of the destruction of Troy and why these have changed over time, for example maritime archaeology; the importance of the discovery of the Hittite foreign office records at Hattusa; excavations by Dörpfeld, Blegen and Korfmann.

The reliability and contestable nature of the representations of the destruction of Troy and the historicity of the Trojan War, including the significance of gaps in evidence, source selection, omission and emphasis.

**The ‘Fall’ of the Roman Empire in the West**

The geographic and historical context of the ‘fall’ of the Roman Empire in the West, including the Battle of Adrianople in AD 378, the Sack of Rome in AD 410 by Alaric and the Visogoths, and the abdication of Romulus Augustus as the last Roman Emperor in the West in AD 476.

The nature of the sources most relevant to these interpretations and representations, for example the writings of Julian, Ammianus Marcellinus, Orosius, Augustine City of God, and Zosimus.

The different interpretations and representations of the ‘fall’ of the Roman Empire in the West (from the ancient past, to the more recent past, to today), including Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, and his view that the Roman Empire fell as a result of barbarian invasions and the promotion of Christianity; and the modern understanding of the “fall” of the Roman Empire in the West as a period of transformation.

The historical context of the interpretations and representations of the ‘fall’ of the Roman Empire and why these have changed over time, for example the importance of the Pagan versus Christian interpretations of events at the time and various modern reinterpretations.

The reliability and contestability of the interpretations and representations of the ‘fall’ of the Roman Empire, including the significance of source selection, omission, emphasis and gaps in evidence, for example debates about what is meant by the ‘decline and fall’ of the Roman empire.

**The Roman Games**

The geographic and historical context of the Roman games, including their origin as funerary commemorations, Etruscan influences, Caesar’s games for Julia, the violent nature of Roman society, types of gladiators (male and female) and their training, the role of amphitheatres as foci within Roman towns, and the significance of the Colosseum and Circus Maximus as venues.

The nature of the sources most relevant to the interpretations and representations of the games, for example the writings of Juvenal, Cicero and Tacitus; the graffiti from Pompeii; and statuettes and mosaics.

The different interpretations and representations of the games (from the ancient past to the present), including the cruelty of the gladiatorial games (Seneca and Christians), the political nature of the games as ‘bread and circuses’, the role of blood sports in Roman society, and modern portrayals in novels and films.

The historical context of the interpretations and representations and why these have changed, for example romantic representations, Christian interpretations, and modern versions of gladiatorial contests.

The reliability and contestability of interpretations and representations of the games, including the origins of the games (foreign or roman); debates about the political significance of the games and the power and authority of the Emperor, the senatorial class, and the masses; and the significance of source selection, omission, emphasis and gaps in evidence.

**Alexander the Great**

The background to Alexander, including the nature of Macedonian kingship and political institutions; the expansion of Macedon under Philip II and the emergence of Macedon as a Mediterranean power; and Alexander’s education, early experiences and accession to the throne.

The nature of the sources most relevant to the interpretations and representations of Alexander, for example: the writings of Plutarch, Arrian, and Curtius Rufus (including their own sources); Macedonian and Hellenistic representations (for example coins and statues); and Roman (literary and portraiture), Medieval (including art) and modern representations (including film and the work of modern historians for example Robin Lane Fax and Brian Bosworth).

The different interpretations and representations of Alexander (from the ancient past to the present), including Alexander as ‘the great general’, the philhellene, the founder of cities; and representations of his character and personality (for example Alexander’s official portraiture), Alexander as god (Siwah), his relationships with his generals and troops (the murder of Cleitos), and his relations with Persia (the burning of Persepolis and the marriages at Susa).

The historical context of the interpretations and representations and why these have changed over time, including romantic representations, the model of generalship, and changing ideas about violence and imperialism.

The reliability and contestability of interpretations and representations of Alexander in ancient and modern written sources, images and film, including the significance of source selection, omission, emphasis and gaps in evidence.

**Cleopatra**

The background to Cleopatra, including the kingdoms of the Hellenistic world, the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt and the role of Ptolemaic women, the significance of Egypt within the Mediterranean world at the time, Egypt’s relationship with Rome, the significance of Egypt in Rome’s civil wars, and how Cleopatra rose to power.

The nature of the sources most relevant to these interpretations and representations, for example Plutarch, Horace, Shakespeare, Lucy Hughes-Hallett, portraiture from different periods, and representations in film.

The different interpretations and representations of Cleopatra (from the ancient past to the present), including how Cleopatra represented herself in monuments and inscriptions; her portrayals as the enemy of Rome, a femme fatale, the saviour of Egypt, and a victim; and modern feminist representations.

The historical context of the interpretations and representations of Cleopatra and why these have changed, for example her Macedonian ancestry and her depiction using traditional Egyptian artistic conventions.

The reliability and contestability of interpretations and representations of Cleopatra, including the significance of source selection, omission, emphasis and gaps in evidence.

**Cao Cao**

The background to Cao Cao, including an overview of Later Han dynasty society and the imperial bureaucracy, and the rise of Cao Cao (AD 155-220) as founder of the Wei kingdom.

The nature of the sources most relevant to the interpretations and representations of Cao Cao, including his poems and autobiography (AD 211).

The different interpretations and representations of Cao Cao and how these have changed (from the ancient past, to the more recent past, to today), including his portrayals as a usurper, a brilliant but flawed tyrant, a military leader and hero, and as the ‘man from the margins’ (Rafe de Crespigny).

The historical context of the interpretations and representations of Cao Cao, including the interpretations of his rise to power at the imperial court, the Chinese tradition of the heroes of the Three Kingdoms, the Battle of Red Cliff (AD 208) and the Battle of Guandu (AD 200).

The reliability and contestability of the interpretations and representations of Cao Cao, including Cao Cao as a ‘tyrant’ versus a ‘good administrator’; the accuracy of the portrayal of Cao Cao as a villain in the novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms; issues of political slander and propaganda, and the influence of contemporary circumstances on reassessments of Cao Cao; and the significance of source selection, omission, emphasis and gaps in evidence.

**The Celts**

The geographical and historical context of the Celts, including main Celtic groups and cultures – Urnfield (1200-600BC), Hallstatt (700 – 500BC) and La Tène (500BC – AD100); social structure; cultural practices; Celtic art; technology; religious beliefs and Druidism; death and burial; interaction with other civilizations; conquest by the Romans; significant individuals for example Vercingetorix, Boudicca.

The nature of the sources and sites, including Vix and Hochdorf Burial; relevant excepts from Caesar’s Gallic War VII, Dio Cassius Roman History Books 40 &43 (Vercingetorix) and Book 62 (Boudicca), Tacitus The Annals Books 14 (Boudicca), Asterix series, statues and other artistic representations of Boudicca and Vercingetorix.

The different interpretations and representations of the Celts (from the ancient past, to the most recent past, to today) including depiction as barbarians and/or rebels by Roman sources, freedom fighters in British and Gallic tradition, propaganda by Napoleon.

The historical context of the interpretations and representations of the Celts and why these have changed over time, for example Ancient Roman interpretations, modern imperialist and nationalistic propaganda, Celtic cultural legacy (art, music, language and beliefs).

The reliability and contestability of the interpretations and representations of the Celts, including the significance of source selection, omission, bias and gaps in evidence.

**The Early Christians**

The geographic and historical context of the Early Christians, including an overview of the life of Christ and the crucifixion; the Jewish and Hebrew tradition, key aspects of Graeco-Roman religion; the spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire; the Roman response including riots during Claudius’ reign, Nero and the Great Fire, the persecution of Christians by Marcus Aurelius, Decius, Galerius, and Diocletian; and the Edict of Milan.

The nature of the sources and sites most relevant to these interpretations and representations, for example relevant excerpts from the Gospels, St Paul’s Letters, The Acts of the Apostles, Josephus, the Martyr Acts, the Catacombs, Eusebius, Antioch and Alexandria and the significance of the sources in the reconstruction of the lives of the Early Christians.

The different interpretations and representations of the Early Christians (from the ancient past, to the more recent past, to today), as revealed in St Paul’s Letters, anti-Christian graffiti, Suetonius’ Life of Claudius, Tacitus, Pliny the Younger, Renaissance art, and films for example Ben Hur.

The historical context of the interpretations and representations of the Early Christians and why these have changed over time, for example the importance of Constantine’s ‘adoption’ and legalisation of Christianity.

The reliability and contestability of the interpretations and representations of the Early Christians and their treatment in the Roman Empire to AD337, including the significance of source selection, omission, emphasis and gaps in evidence.

**Unit 2: Ancient Societies**

This unit involves an investigation of how people lived in the ancient world through an examination of the evidence of the social, political and economic institutions and structures of TWO societies. Students will also study ONE significant feature of society and how it relates to the institutions and structures studied. The significant feature may be the same for the two societies and teachers may choose to conduct a comparative study of this significant feature across the two societies.

Students are required to make connections between the social, economic and political elements of the society and the specific feature they study. In this unit there is a focus on analytical skills, which require identification and evaluation of a variety of ancient and modern sources for the society. The key conceptual understandings of this unit include: reliability and usefulness of sources, significance, perspectives and interpretations.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the political, social, economic and other significant features of ancient societies and the relationship between them;
- understand that interpretations of the past change over time and are dependent on the perspective and context of the source;
- apply key concepts as part of a historical inquiry including evidence, reliability and usefulness of sources, significance, perspectives and interpretations;
- use historical skills to investigate the key features of ancient societies; and use a range of evidence to support and communicate a historical explanation or argument.

**Historical skills**

All the following skills will be studied during this unit. Relevant skills will be emphasised for each topic.

**Chronology, terms and concepts**

Identify links between events to understand the nature and significance of causation, change and continuity over time.

Use historical terms and concepts in appropriate contexts to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.

**Historical questions and research**

Formulate, test and modify propositions to investigate historical issues.

Frame questions to guide inquiry and develop a coherent research plan for inquiry.

Identify, locate and organise relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources.

Identify and practise ethical scholarship when conducting research.

**Analysis and use of sources**

Identify the origin, purpose and context of historical sources.

Analyse, interpret and synthesise evidence from different types of sources to develop and sustain an historical argument.

Evaluate the reliability, usefulness and contestability of sources to develop informed judgments that support a historical argument.

**Perspectives and interpretations**

Analyse and account for the different perspectives of individuals and groups in the past.

Evaluate critically different historical interpretations of the past, how they evolved, and how they are shaped by the historian’s perspective.

Evaluate contested views about the past to understand the provisional nature of historical knowledge and to arrive at reasoned and supported conclusions.

**Explanation and communication**

Develop texts that integrate appropriate evidence from a range of sources to explain the past and to support and refute arguments.

Communicate historical understanding by selecting and using text forms appropriate to purpose and audience.

Apply appropriate referencing techniques accurately and consistently.

**Historical knowledge and understanding**

Students study TWO of the following topic electives, which are to be taught with the requisite historical skills described at the end of this unit:

- Old Kingdom Egypt, 3rd to 6th Dynasties;
- Egypt in the Ramesside Period, 19th and 20th Dynasties;
- Bronze Age Greece: Minoans or Mycenaeans, 2000 – 1100 BC;
- Sparta, c. 700 – 371 BC;
- Persia, 559 – 330 BC;
- Rome, 753 – 264 BC;
- Rome, 264 – 133 BC;
- Ptolemaic Egypt, 331 BC – AD 31;
- China in the Qin and Han Dynasties, 221 BC – AD 220;
- Israel and Judah, 961 – 586 BC;
- Assyria, 721 – 612 BC;
- India in the Mauryan Dynasty, 321 – 185 BC.

For the chosen society, students investigate the chronological and geographical context, social structure, political institutions, economic activities; and ONE of the following features as appropriate for the society selected:

- Slavery;
- Art and architecture;
- Weapons and warfare;
- Technology and engineering;
- The family;
- Beliefs, rituals and funerary practices.

For each chosen society, students investigate the nature of the ancient society at the start of the period, including:

**The chronological and geographical context**

A broad chronological overview, from the origins of the society to the period that is the focus for investigation.

The geographic location, including the nature of the environment and its influence on the society.

**Social structure**

The main social hierarchies for example elites, workers, slaves, ethnic groups and foreigners (where applicable).

The role and status of, and attitudes towards, women.

The role of, and attitude towards, children and education.

**Political institutions**

The key features of political organisation for example monarchy, kingship, tyranny, republic, democracy.

The role and function of key political institutions and political positions.

The key legal structures.

**Economic activities**

The nature and importance of economic activity for example agriculture, commerce, industry, trade and building programs.

The organisation of free and indentured labour.

Economic exchange for example tribute, taxation and coinage.

In addition, for each chosen society, students study ONE of the following features as appropriate, which is to be taught with the requisite historical skills described at the start of this unit:

**Slavery**

The forms of slavery and its significance, including:

- the nature of the sources for slavery and evidence for the origins of slavery;
- composition of slave groups, occupations (of men, women and children) and treatment;
- the economic importance of slavery;
- attitudes to slavery, the status of slaves and their relationship with masters;
- the extent of slavery and significant events in the history of slavery , for example revolts.

**Art and architecture**

The nature and significance of art and architecture, including:

- the nature of the sources for art and architecture;
- themes and styles of art;
- the main features, materials, purpose and function of various forms of architecture;
- the role and significance of art and architecture, public and private;
- evidence for the spread of particular forms of art and architecture in the ancient world through trade, the movement of peoples, and conquest.

**Weapons and warfare**

The development of weaponry and methods of warfare, including:

- the nature of the sources for weapons and warfare, and early evidence for military encounters in the ancient world;
- the composition and role of armies and navies and changes in forms of weapons and military tactics;
- the life of soldiers, their training and the conditions of service;
- the significance of the military;
- the political, economic and social impact of warfare and conquest.

**Technology and engineering**

The innovations in technology and engineering and their influence on daily life, including:

- the nature of the sources for technology and engineering;
- technological feats in construction materials and methods related to buildings, structures and statues;
- forms of technology and their impact on the household and economic life (metallurgy, pottery, surgical tools, transport, water supply and sanitation);
- the use of technology in ancient times to access resources and control the environment;
- the impact of technological innovations on social, economic and political development and their legacy.

**The family**

The role and characteristics of the family, including:

- the nature of the sources for the family, and early depictions of the family (men, women and children) in the historical record;
- beliefs and practices that influenced family life, including: the purpose of marriage and/or betrothal, marriage rituals, divorce, concubines, infanticide, gender, leisure activities;
- different concepts of the family, family structures and family ties, and the roles and relationships within the family, including the role and status of women;
- concepts of childhood and childhood experiences, including: education, rites of passage, age of maturity;
- the significance of the family in social and political life.

**Beliefs, rituals and funerary practices**

The different beliefs, rituals and funerary practices, including:

- the nature of the sources for beliefs, rituals and funerary practices;
- the dominant beliefs and rituals;
- the influence and significance of beliefs and rituals;
- attitudes to and beliefs about death, and the concept of an afterlife;
- funerary practices (burial sites, forms of burial, ceremonies) and their relationship to religious beliefs and social status.

**Ancient History – Unit 1 and Unit 2**

Knowledge and understanding

**A.**

- evaluates the significance of issues associated with the use of sources and evidence for the ancient world;
- evaluates key features and structures of ancient societies and how they shaped people’s lives and actions in the past;
- assesses the significance of individuals, events, features and developments of the ancient world;
- analyses the contestable nature of different interpretations and representations related to a site, event or change, individual or group, and evaluates their usefulness in explaining the past.

**B.**

- assesses the significance of issues associated with the use of sources and evidence for the ancient world;
- explains key features and structures of ancient societies and how they shaped people’s lives and actions in the past;
- explains the significance of individuals, events and developments of the ancient world;
- explains the contestable nature of different interpretations and representations related to a site, event or change, individual or group, and analyses their usefulness in explaining the past.

**C.**

- explains the issues associated with the use of sources and evidence for the ancient world;
- describes key features and structures of ancient societies and how they shaped people’s lives;
- describes the significance of individuals, events and developments of the ancient world;
- describes contested views of a site, event or change, individual or group, and their usefulness in explaining the past.

**D.**

- identifies the issues associated with the use of sources for the ancient world;
- identifies key features of ancient societies;
- identifies individuals and events of the ancient world;
- describes different interpretations and representations of the past.

**E.**

- identifies sources for the ancient world;
- identifies ancient societies;
- identifies some individuals and events of the ancient world;
- identifies interpretations and representations of the past.

Skills

**A.**

- undertakes an historical inquiry selecting and using relevant evidence based on a critical evaluation of reliable and useful sources;
- critically evaluates alternative historical interpretations and representations by selecting and using relevant evidence from a range of sources;
- develops convincing historical arguments with valid and sustained reasoning by synthesising relevant evidence from different sources, and by acknowledging alternative interpretations;
- communicates complex ideas and coherent and sustained arguments using relevant evidence, appropriate language and accurate referencing.

**B.**

- undertakes an historical inquiry selecting and using relevant evidence based on an assessment of reliable and useful sources;
- analyses different historical interpretations and representations selecting and using relevant evidence from a range of sources;
- develops convincing historical arguments with valid reasoning by synthesising relevant evidence from different sources, and by acknowledging different interpretations;
- communicates ideas and coherent arguments using relevant evidence, appropriate language and accurate referencing.

**C.**

- undertakes an historical inquiry selecting and using evidence from a range of appropriate sources;
- explains different historical interpretations and representations using available evidence;
- develops reasoned historical arguments using evidence from different sources, and with reference to some interpretations;
- communicates ideas and arguments using appropriate language and accurate referencing.

**D.**

- researches a historical inquiry and locates answers in sources;
- identifies historical interpretations and representations;
- develops historical accounts using evidence from a limited number of sources;
- communicates a limited argument with referencing.

**E.**

- researches a topic and locates answers;
- identifies different viewpoints about the past;
- recounts historical events;
- communicates information with minimal referencing.

**Unit 1: Natural and ecological hazards**

Natural and ecological hazards represent potential sources of harm to human life, health, income and property, and may affect elements of the biophysical, managed and constructed elements of environments.

This unit focuses on identifying risks and managing those risks to eliminate or minimise harm to people and the environment. Risk management, in this particular context, refers to prevention, mitigation and preparedness. Prevention is about things we can do to prevent a hazard from happening. Mitigation is about reducing or eliminating the impact if the hazard does happen. Preparedness refers to actions taken to create and maintain the capacity of communities to respond to, and recover from, natural disasters, through measures such as planning, community education, information management, communications and warning systems.

Building on their existing geographical knowledge and understandings, students examine natural hazards including atmospheric, hydrological and geomorphic hazards, for example, storms, cyclones, tornadoes, frosts, droughts, bushfires, flooding, earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides. They also explore ecological hazards, for example, environmental diseases/pandemics (toxin-based respiratory ailments, infectious diseases, animal-transmitted diseases and water-borne diseases) and plant and animal invasions.

This unit includes an overview of natural and ecological hazards and two depth studies: one focusing on a natural hazard and one focusing on an ecological hazard.

The scale of study for this unit, unless specified, can range from local to global, as appropriate. The potential for fieldwork will depend on the hazards selected.

In undertaking these depth studies, students develop an understanding about using and applying geographical inquiry, tools such as spatial technologies, and skills, to model, assess and forecast risk, and to investigate the risks associated with natural and ecological hazards.

By the end of this unit, students will:

- understand that places and environments can be influenced by both natural and ecological hazards;
- understand the complexity of human–environment interdependence in relation to natural and ecological hazards;
- demonstrate knowledge of the concept of risk management;
- understand and apply key geographical concepts – including place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability, scale and change – as part of a geographical inquiry;
- apply geographical inquiry and a range of skills, including spatial technologies and fieldwork, to investigate natural and ecological hazards;
- compare Australian and international risk management policies, procedures and practices;
- evaluate Australian and international risk management policies, procedures and practices.

**Geographical Inquiry and Skills**

Observing, questioning and planning:

- formulates geographical inquiry questions
- plans a geographical inquiry with clearly defined aims and appropriate methodology.

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing:

- collects geographical information incorporating ethical protocols from a range of primary and secondary sources;
- records observations in a range of graphic representations using spatial technologies and information and communication technologies;
- evaluates the reliability, validity and usefulness of geographical sources and information.

Interpreting, analysing and concluding:

- analyses geographical information and data from a range of primary and secondary sources and a variety of perspectives to draw reasoned conclusions and make generalisations;
- identifies and analyses trends and patterns, infers relationships, and makes predictions and inferences.

Communicating:

- communicates geographical information, ideas, issues and arguments using appropriate written and/or oral, cartographic and graphic forms;
- uses geographical language in appropriate contexts to demonstrate geographical knowledge and understanding.

Reflecting and responding:

- applies generalisations to evaluate alternative responses to geographical issues at a variety of scales;
- proposes individual and collective action, taking into account environmental, social and economic factors; and predicts the outcomes of the proposed action.

**Geographical Knowledge and Understanding**

Overview of natural and ecological hazards:

An overview of the nature of natural hazards (atmospheric, hydrological, and geomorphic) and ecological hazards.

The concept of risk as applied to natural and ecological hazards.

The temporal and spatial distribution, randomness, magnitude, frequency and scale of spatial impact of natural and ecological hazards at a global scale.

The role of spatial technologies in the study of natural and ecological hazards.

Students complete both depth studies which are to be taught with the requisite geographical inquiry and skills described as part of this unit:

Depth study of a natural hazard.

A depth study, using fieldwork and/or secondary sources, to investigate one natural hazard, and how the risks associated with the hazard are being managed. The scale of study is determined by the nature of the natural hazard selected.

Students select ONE natural hazard to investigate:

- the nature and causes of the selected hazard and explain how the activities of people can intensify its impacts;
- the magnitude, frequency, duration, temporal spacing and effects of the hazard;
- the spatial distribution of the hazard, and how an understanding of biophysical and human processes can be used to explain the patterns that are identified;
- the physical and human factors that explain why some places are more vulnerable than others;
- the environmental, economic and social impacts of the hazard in a developed country such as Australia compared with at least one developing country or region;
- the sustainable risk management policies, procedures and practices designed to reduce the impacts of the hazard through preparedness, mitigation, prevention and adaptation.

Depth study of an ecological hazard

A depth study, using fieldwork and/or secondary sources, to investigate one ecological hazard, and how the risks associated with the hazard are being managed. The scale of study is determined by the nature of the ecological hazard selected.

Students select ONE ecological hazard to investigate:

- the nature and causes of the selected hazard and how the activities of people can intensify its impacts;
- the magnitude, frequency, duration, temporal spacing and effects of the hazard;
- the diffusion and resulting spatial distribution of the hazard, and how an understanding of biophysical and human processes can be used to explain its spread;
- the physical and human factors that explain why some places are more vulnerable than others;
- the environmental, economic and social impacts of the hazard in a developed country such as Australia compared with at least one developing country or region;
- the sustainable risk management policies, procedures and practices designed to reduce the impacts of the hazard through preparedness, mitigation, prevention and adaptation.

**Unit 2: Sustainable places**

This unit examines the economic, social and environmental sustainability of places. While all places are subject to changes produced by economic, demographic, social, political and environmental processes, the outcomes of these processes vary depending on local responses and adaptations.

At a global scale, the process of urbanisation is not only affecting the rate of world population growth and human wellbeing, it has created a range of challenges for both urban and rural places. How people respond to these challenges, individually and collectively, will determine the sustainability and liveability of places into the future.

The interconnected challenges faced in places, including population growth and decline, employment, economic restructuring, transport infrastructure needs, housing, demands for improved health and education services, and other matters related to liveability, are a particular focus of this unit.

In Australia’s metropolitan and regional cities, the challenges may also include managing economic growth, urban sprawl, car dependency, environmental degradation, abandoned land, and deficiencies in urban planning, service provision and management. In rural and remote places the challenges may include lack of employment for young people, lack of educational services, poor transportation connections to major centres, closure of a major industry, lack of service provision, isolation and remoteness.

Students examine how governments, planners, communities, interest groups and individuals try to address these challenges to ensure that places are sustainable. They also investigate the ways that geographical knowledge and skills can be applied to identify and address these challenges.

This unit includes an overview of places and the challenges faced by cities in the developed and developing world. The unit also includes two depth studies: one focusing on challenges faced by a place in Australia, and one focusing on challenges faced by a megacity in a developing country. The scale of study for this unit, unless specified, can range from local to global, as appropriate.

The scale of study in this unit begins at the global, through an examination of the process of urbanisation and its consequences, before focusing on the challenges facing places in Australia, with the opportunity to undertake a local area study. The scale of study then shifts to national and regional to investigate megacities in developing countries. This approach enables students to develop an understanding of the challenges for places in both the developed and developing worlds. It also enables them to compare and contrast the way in which the challenges are addressed at a variety of scales and in different contexts.

In undertaking these depth studies, students develop an understanding about using and applying geographical inquiry, tools such as spatial technologies, and skills, to investigate the sustainability of places.

By the end of this unit, students will:

- understand the processes resulting in change in places and how the places investigated can be made more sustainable;
- understand the outcomes of the processes creating change in different communities;
- understand and apply key geographical concepts – including place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability, scale and change – as part of a geographical inquiry;
- gather and analyse primary and secondary data to reveal trends in and relationships between the processes resulting in changes in places;
- apply geographical inquiry and a range of skills, including spatial technologies and fieldwork, to investigate a challenge associated with the sustainability of places;
- evaluate alternative strategies or proposals to manage the selected challenge.

**Geographical Inquiry and Skills**

Observing, questioning and planning:

- formulates geographical inquiry questions;
- plans a geographical inquiry with clearly defined aims and appropriate methodology.

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing:

- collects geographical information incorporating ethical protocols from a range of primary and secondary sources;
- records observations in a range of graphic representations using spatial technologies and information and communication technologies;
- evaluates the reliability, validity and usefulness of geographical sources and information.

Interpreting, analysing and concluding:

- analyses geographical information and data from a range of primary and secondary sources and a variety of perspectives to draw reasoned conclusions and make generalisations;
- identifies and analyses relationships, spatial patterns and trends and makes predictions and inferences.

Communicating:

- communicates geographical information, ideas, issues and arguments using appropriate written and/or oral, cartographic and graphic forms;
- uses geographical language in appropriate contexts to demonstrate geographical knowledge and understanding.

Reflecting and responding:

- applies generalisations to evaluate alternative responses to geographical issues at a variety of scales;
- proposes individual and collective action, taking into account environmental, social and economic factors; and predicts the outcomes of the proposed action.

**Geographical Knowledge and Understanding**

Overview of places and their challenges

Places:

The process of urbanisation, its implications for world population growth, human wellbeing and urban and rural places.

The economic and environmental interdependence of urban and rural places.

The spatial distribution of metropolitan, regional, rural and remote places in Australia, and the factors that have contributed to this.

The changing demographic characteristics and economic functions of metropolitan, regional, rural and remote places in Australia.

Challenges facing places:

An overview of challenges for rural and remote places in Australia, including Indigenous communities.

An overview of challenges in metropolitan and regional cities in Australia.

An overview of the challenges faced in megacities in developing countries.

Students complete both depth studies which are to be taught with the requisite geographical inquiry and skills described as part of this unit:

Depth study of challenges facing a place in Australia.

A depth study, using fieldwork and/or secondary sources, to investigate significant related challenges faced in one Australian place and how these challenges are being addressed.

Students select significant related challenges in a metropolitan, regional, rural or remote place, to investigate:

- the nature, scope and causes of the selected challenges being confronted and the implication for the place;
- the range of strategies used to address the selected challenges and how these compare with, and/or have been informed by, responses implemented in other places both within and outside of Australia;
- the extent to which the strategies adopted have been, or could be, informed by the concept of sustainability;
- the strategies adopted and an assessment of how these have enhanced the sustainability and liveability of the place.

Depth study of challenges facing a megacity in a developing country.

A depth study investigating significant challenges faced by one megacity in a developing country.

- Students select significant selected challenges in a megacity to investigate:
- the nature, scope and causes of the selected challenges being addressed and the implications for the selected megacity;
- the range of strategies used to address the selected challenges and how these compare with, and/or have been informed by, responses implemented in other developing and developed world megacities;
- the extent to which the strategies adopted have been, or could be, informed by the concept of sustainability;
- the strategies adopted and an assessment of how these have enhanced the sustainability and liveability of the megacity.

**Geography – Unit 1 and Unit 2**

Knowledge and understanding

**A.**

- analyses how processes of change have spatial consequences in places and environments at a range of scales, and explains the role of context;
- analyses interconnections between people, places and environments, and their geographical significance and consequences;
- analyses spatial distributions, patterns and associations at a range of scales and in different contexts, and predicts plausible future changes;
- analyses alternative views on a geographical issue or challenge and explains how decision-making is informed by interacting environmental, economic and social factors.

**B.**

- explains how processes of change have consequences in places and environments at a range of scales and in different contexts;
- explains interconnections between people, places and environments, and their geographical significance and consequences;
- explains spatial distributions, patterns and associations at a range of scales and in different contexts;
- explains alternative views on a geographical issue or challenge and how decision-making is informed by environmental, economic and social factors.

**C.**

- explains how processes of change affect places and environments at different scales;
- describes interconnections between people, places and environments, and their geographical significance and consequences;
- describes spatial distributions, patterns and associations at a range of scales;
- describes alternative views on a geographical issue or challenge and how decision-making is informed by environmental, economic and social factors.

**D.**

- describes how change affects places and environments with limited reference to scale;
- identifies interconnections between people, places and environments and outlines their geographical significance and consequences;
- describes spatial distributions, patterns and associations;
- describes alternative views on a geographical issue or challenge.

**E.**

- identifies changes in places and environments;
- identifies some interconnections between people, places and environments;
- identifies spatial distributions and patterns;
- identifies alternative views on a geographical issue or challenge.

Inquiry and Skills

**A.**

- plans and undertakes independent geographical inquiries to collect and analyse relevant data and information based on a critical evaluation of reliable and useful sources;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to explain relationships, spatial patterns and trends;
- analyses information and multivariable data to draw evidence-based conclusions that identify limitations;
- communicates complex ideas and coherent and sustained explanations, selecting appropriate language and forms for audience and purpose;
- uses reasoned criteria to propose and justify action in response to a contemporary geographical issue or challenge and analyses possible outcomes of the action.

**B.**

- plans and undertakes independent geographical inquiries to collect and analyse relevant data and information based on an assessment of reliable and useful sources;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe relationships, spatial patterns and trends;
- interprets information and multivariable data to draw evidence-based conclusions;
- communicates ideas and coherent explanations, selecting appropriate language and forms for audience and purpose;
- uses appropriate criteria to propose and justify action in response to a contemporary geographical issue or challenge, and describes a range of possible outcomes of the action.

**C.**

- undertakes guided geographical inquiries to collect and analyse data and information based on a range of appropriate sources;
- selects, constructs and uses appropriate representations to describe relationships, simple spatial patterns and trends;
- interprets information and multivariable data to draw conclusions;
- communicates ideas and explanations in written, oral and graphic forms using appropriate language;
- uses appropriate criteria to propose action in response to a contemporary geographical issue or challenge, and predicts possible outcomes of the action.

**D.**

- undertakes guided geographical inquiries using limited sources;
- constructs and uses representations to describe relationships and identify simple spatial patterns and trends;
- interprets information and data to draw simple conclusions;
- communicates ideas and information in written, oral and graphic forms;
- proposes action in response to a contemporary issue, and identifies some of the possible outcomes.

**E.**

- undertakes simple research on a topic;
- constructs and uses simple representations to describe phenomena;
- describes information and data;
- communicates information in a range of forms;
- proposes action in response to a contemporary issue.

**Unit 1: Understanding the Modern World**

This unit examines developments of significance in the modern era, including the ideas that inspired them and their far-reaching consequences. Students examine TWO topics, including at least ONE study of a development or turning point that has helped to define the modern world. Students explore crucial changes for example the application of reason to human affairs; the transformation of production, consumption, transport and communications; the challenge to social hierarchy and hereditary privilege, and the assertion of inalienable rights; and the new principles of government by consent. Through their studies, students explore the nature of the sources for the study of Modern History and build their skills in historical method through inquiry. The key conceptual understandings covered in this unit are: what makes an historical development significant; the changing nature and usefulness of sources; the changing representations and interpretations of the past; and the historical legacy of these developments for the Western world and beyond.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand key developments that have helped define the modern world, their causes, the different experiences of individuals and groups, and their short and long term consequences;
- understand the ideas that both inspired and emerged from these key developments and their significance for the contemporary world;
- apply key concepts as part of a historical inquiry, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, significance, empathy, perspectives and contestability;
- use historical skills to investigate particular developments of the modern era and the nature of sources; determine the reliability and usefulness of sources and evidence; explore different interpretations and representations; and use a range of evidence to support and communicate an historical argument.

**Historical skills**

All the following skills will be studied during this unit. Relevant skills will be emphasised for each topic.

Chronology, terms and concepts

Identify links between events to understand the nature and significance of causation, change and continuity over time.

Use historical terms and concepts in appropriate contexts to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.

**Historical questions and research**

Formulate, test and modify propositions to investigate historical issues.

Frame questions to guide inquiry and develop a coherent research plan for inquiry.

Identify, locate and organise relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources.

Practise ethical scholarship when conducting research.

**Analysis and use of sources**

Identify the origin, purpose and context of historical sources.

Analyse, interpret and synthesise evidence from different types of sources to develop and sustain an historical argument.

Evaluate the reliability, usefulness and contestable nature of sources to develop informed judgements that support a historical argument.

**Perspectives and interpretations**

Analyse and account for the different perspectives of individuals and groups in the past.

Evaluate critically different historical interpretations of the past, how they evolved, and how they are shaped by the historian’s perspective.

Evaluate contested views about the past to understand the provisional nature of historical knowledge and to arrive at reasoned and supported conclusions.

**Explanation and communication**

Develop texts that integrate appropriate evidence from a range of sources to explain the past and to support and refute arguments;

Communicate historical understanding by selecting and using text forms appropriate to the purpose and audience.

Apply appropriate referencing techniques accurately and consistently.

**Historical knowledge and understanding**

Students study TWO topics with at least ONE to be chosen from the topic electives below. An alternative significant development may be chosen as one of the two topics of study in this unit:

- The Enlightenment, 1750 – 1789;
- The American Revolution, 1763 – 1812;
- The French Revolution, 1774 – 1799;
- The Industrial Revolutions, 1750 – 1890s;
- The Age of Imperialism, 1848 – 1914;

An alternative significant development or turning point may be chosen as one of the two topics of study in this unit. This could facilitate comparisons in terms of the far-reaching consequences of the developments. Any topic other than the suggested topic electives should be selected on the basis of the following criteria.

Students study at least ONE of the following topic electives which is to be taught with the requisite historical skills described at the start of this unit:

**The Enlightenment (1750 – 1789)**

The main factors contributing to the emergence of the Enlightenment, including the decline in the power of both the Church and Absolute Monarchy, the Scientific Revolution; and the spread of Enlightenment ideas across Europe.

The motivation and role of individuals in the development of the Enlightenment, and conflicting ideas, with particular reference to Locke, Voltaire, Mill and Rousseau.

The key ideas that emerged from the Enlightenment, including the belief in reason and opposition to superstition; the belief in the importance of free expression; the belief in the value of learning and education as reflected in the rise of universities and academies; and support for humanitarianism.

The significant changes that occurred as a result of the Enlightenment, for example: movements for social and political reform; the rise of enlightened monarchies; increased interest in technological change; and belief in equal rights.

The experiences and responses to the Enlightenment, for example those of scientists, intellectuals, monarchs, church leaders and revolutionary leaders.

The significance and impact of the Enlightenment beyond Europe in the 19th century.

**The American Revolution (1763 – 1812)**

The main causes of the American Revolution, including the significance of the Seven Years War (1756-1763); the influence of republican ideology; the imposition of taxes, repressive acts, and lack of American representation in British government; and the campaigns that were fought to achieve independence (for example Saratoga and Philadelphia).

The aims and contribution of significant individuals to the revolutionary movement, with particular reference to Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, John Hancock and John Adams.

The key ideas of liberalism, democracy and republicanism that emerged from the American Revolution as illustrated by the 1776 Declaration of Independence; the creation of a national constitution and Bill of Rights; and the establishment of constitutional government.

The different experiences of revolutionaries, royalists, neutrals, native Americans, slaves and women during the period and their response to the challenges in the formation of the United States of America.

The significant political, social and constitutional changes brought about by the American Revolution, for example: the separation of powers; treatment of the opponents of the new republic; losses during the war; and the emergence of the Federal system.

The significance of the American Revolution into the 19th century: for example its impact on other revolutionary movements; and the implications for Australia of the cessation of British convict transportation to the United States.

**The French Revolution (1774 – 1799)**

The main causes of the French Revolution including the influence of the Enlightenment; the increasingly prosperous elite of wealthy commoners who resented their exclusion from political power; and the financial crisis of the government.

The motivation and role of significant individuals in the struggles of the Revolution, with particular reference to Danton, Marat, Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Robespierre and Saint-Just, and of significant groups including the sans-culottes, the bourgeoisie and the peasants.

The key ideas and their significance in the French Revolution, including liberty, equality, fraternity, citizenship and inalienable rights.

The significant changes that occurred during the French Revolution, including the overturning of the ‘ancien regime’, changes to the social structure of France, foreign policy and the revolutionary wars.

The consequences of the French Revolution, including the difficulties and crises that were faced by revolutionary groups and government as the new state was consolidated, the counter-revolution and the ‘Reign of Terror’, the abolition of monarchy, the advent of democracy and the rise of the middle class.

The significance of the French Revolution into the 19th century including, the rise and influence of Napoleonic France and the growth of nationalism as an outcome of the French Revolution.

**The Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1890s)**

The main causes of the Industrial Revolution in the second half of the 18th century as debated by historians, including the invention of new technologies and use of coal and iron; population increase; European imperialism and the capital accumulated from trade.

The role and significance of key individuals involved in the period of the Industrial Revolution, with particular reference to Watt, Darby, Thoreau and Smith.

The impact of new processes and ideas on economic life, for example: the development of mining; the mechanisation of the textile industry; the rise of the factory system and production lines; the development of a steel-based second Industrial Revolution; and new forms of transport and communications (for example, canals, roads, and trains).

The emergence of key ideas and ideologies that supported or challenged the Industrial Revolution, for example capitalism; liberalism; laissez–faire; Chartism; socialism; the commodification of labour; and the Protestant work ethic.

The experiences of factory owners, workers, women and children in the Industrial Revolution; and responses to the Industrial Revolution of Luddites, Chartists, trade unionists.

The effectiveness of official responses to the challenges of the Industrial Revolution, including Royal Commissions, Factory Acts (1802-1850), ‘Peterloo Massacre’, and the Factory Act of 1833.

The significance of the Industrial Revolution in Britain up to the 1890s for the organisation and use of labour as a commodity, for living and working conditions; for the environment, urbanisation and transportation.

**The Age of Imperialism: 1848 – 1914**

The main causes of imperial expansion, including the emergence of market economies in Europe, industrialisation, the competing naval powers of Britain, Germany and Russia and the competition to establish colonies and markets in Africa, Asia and the Pacific.

The different forms of imperialism, including trade, exploitation of resources and strategic considerations.

An overview of the extent of imperial expansion by 1914 in Africa, Asia and the Pacific.

The key ideas of the ‘imperial age’ including nationalism, the glorification of ‘empire’ and the ‘Christian mission’.

With particular reference to ONE or more colonies, the methods and motivations of the colonisers; the experiences and responses of the colonised people; and the changes that occurred within the colony/colonies as part of imperial expansion.

The significance of imperialism in this period, including the spread of Christianity, the growth of world trade and capitalism, and the growth of imperial rivalry and militarism.

**An alternative significant development**

An alternative significant development or turning point may be chosen as one of the two topics of study in this unit. This could facilitate comparisons in terms of the far-reaching consequences of the developments. Any topic other than the suggested topic electives should be selected on the basis of the following criteria.

The development:

- is within the period 1750–1918;
- affected large numbers of people;
- had a profound effect on people’s lives at the time;
- had longer-term consequences;
- has relevance for contemporary concerns, ideas, beliefs, values and motivations.

Relevant examples of significant developments could include: the American Civil War and its aftermath; World War I and its legacy; advances in health and medicine; development of one or more of the following: capitalism; liberalism; nationalism; socialism.

**Unit 2: Movements for Change in the 20th century**

This unit examines significant movements for change in the 20th century that led to change in society, including people’s attitudes and circumstances. These movements draw on the major ideas described in Unit 1, have been closely connected with democratic political systems, and have been subject to political debate. Through a detailed examination of TWO major 20th century movements, students investigate the ways in which individuals, groups and institutions have challenged existing political structures, accepted social organisation, and prevailing economic models to transform societies. The key conceptual understandings covered in this unit are: the factors leading to the development of movements; the methods adopted to achieve effective change; the changing nature of these movements throughout the 20th century; and changing perspectives of the value of these movements and how their significance is interpreted.

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the key features of the movements for change, including the conditions that gave rise to these movements, the motivations and role of individuals and groups, and the short and long term consequences;
- understand the significance of these movements, the influence of ideas that were central in their development, and the methods employed;
- apply key concepts as part of a historical inquiry, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, significance, empathy, perspectives and contestability;
- use historical skills to investigate these movements in the modern period; judge the reliability and usefulness of sources and the value of different kinds of evidence; explore different interpretations and representations; and use a range of evidence to support and communicate an historical argument.

**Historical skills**

Chronology, terms and concepts

**Historical questions and research**

Formulate, test and modify propositions to investigate historical issues.

Frame questions to guide inquiry and develop a coherent research plan for inquiry.

Identify, locate and organise relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources.

Practise ethical scholarship when conducting research.

**Analysis and use of sources**

Identify the origin, purpose and context of historical sources.

Analyse, interpret and synthesise evidence from different types of sources to develop and sustain a historical argument.

Evaluate the reliability, usefulness and contestable nature of sources to develop informed judgements that support a historical argument.

**Perspectives and interpretations**

Analyse and account for the different perspectives of individuals and groups in the past.

**Explanation and communication**

Develop texts that integrate appropriate evidence from a range of sources to explain the past and to support and refute arguments.

Communicate historical understanding by selecting and using text forms appropriate to the purpose and audience.

Apply appropriate referencing techniques accurately and consistently.

**Historical knowledge and understanding**

Students study TWO of the following 20th century movements:

- Women’s movements;
- Recognition and rights of Indigenous peoples;
- Decolonisation;
- The Civil rights movement in the USA;
- Workers’ movements.

An alternative significant movement for change may be chosen as one of the two topics of study in this unit. This could facilitate comparisons in terms of the far-reaching consequences of the developments. Any topic other than the suggested topic electives should be selected on the basis of the following criteria.

The movement:

- is within the 20th century period;
- affected large numbers of people;
- led to profound change within society;
- had longer-term consequences;
- has relevance for contemporary concerns, ideas, beliefs, values and motivations.

Relevant examples of significant movements could include: the end of Apartheid in South Africa; the pro-democracy movement in Burma; and movements related to one or more of the following: internationalism, anti-nuclear, environmental sustainability.

Students study TWO of the following 20th century movements which are to be taught with the requisite historical skills described at the start of this unit:

Women’s movements.

Students study this topic with reference to Australia and one other society to investigate:

The legal and political entitlements of women in Western societies, for example the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and France at the start of the 20th century, including their right to vote, their right to stand for Parliament, marriage law and property law.

The role of suffrage movements in the 20th century, for example the reasons why political participation was a key objective of the movement for women’s rights.

The significance of World Wars I and II for women and the effect of international agreements, for example the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights on the status of women.

The early contribution of important individuals, including Vida Goldstein and Emmeline Pankhurst and the subsequent influence of authors, influential women and activists, for example Simone de Beauvoir, Betty Friedan, Kate Millett and Germaine Greer, on the changing nature of women’s demands after World War II.

The post-war economic and technological improvements that changed women’s lives, for example new technologies in the home, the rise of consumerism and social networking.

The post-war changes in social conditions affecting women, for example birth control with the introduction of the contraceptive pill; improved pay and employment opportunities; affirmative action; campaigns against violence, war and discrimination and the development of child care services.

The importance of legislation in securing changes for women since World War II, for example, Roe vs Wade (US); the Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Australia); the failure of the United States to ratify the 19th amendment on Equal Rights; the Equality Act of 2010 (UK); and the Human Rights Act of 2001 (New Zealand).

The achievements and legacies of women’s movements.

Recognition and rights of indigenous peoples.

Students study Australian society and ONE other relevant 20th century society, to investigate:

The nature of the relationship of indigenous peoples with their land and their response to perceptions of, and feelings about, the arrival of the colonisers.

The basis on which the colonists claimed sovereignty and imposed control, including conquest, treaty and the doctrine of ‘terra nullius’; and the consequences for the legal status and land rights of Indigenous peoples.

The nature of government policies and their impact on indigenous peoples, for example protection, assimilation (including the Stolen Generations), and self-determination.

The role of individuals and groups who supported the movement for indigenous recognition and rights, including the methods they used and the resistance they encountered.

The economic, political and social challenges and opportunities indigenous peoples have faced, including the role of cultural activity in developing awareness in society.

The achievements of indigenous peoples at the end of the 20th century, including the right to vote, land rights/native title, and attempt at reconciliation.

The continued efforts to achieve greater recognition, reconciliation, civil rights, and improvements in education and health.

**Decolonisation**

Students select TWO countries from Algeria, Congo, India, Vietnam and East Timor to investigate:

The reasons for colonisation and how the country became colonised, including the different situations of the chosen countries, and the nature of those differences.

Conditions in the colony at the start of the 20th century, with specific reference to the living conditions of the colonisers and the colonised, the political structure in place, the aspirations of those living under colonisation, and the nature of the economy.

The economic and moral challenges to Europe’s ability to maintain colonies that resulted from the impact of World Wars I and II.

The emergence of movements for decolonisation, the key groups and individuals that pressed for liberation of the colony, the ideas that influenced them, and their struggle to achieve independence.

The significance of international movements for change that supported the decolonisation process, for example the emerging recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples, movements for international peace and cooperation, and the recognition of human rights.

The outcomes of decolonisation, government, democratic freedoms, economic development, education and health care.

The key developments over time in the independent country, for example increasing urbanisation, and matters related to governance (single party or democratic representation), internal security, social equality, and independent foreign policy.

The Civil rights movement in the USA.

Students investigate:

The circumstances of African Americans in the United States at the turn of the 20th century, including the legacy of the Civil War, the limitation of voting rights, the extent of segregation, and various forms of discrimination.

The formation and role of groups supporting civil rights and their ideas for change, for example the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured Peoples (NAACP) in 1909, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1941, the Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL) in 1951, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957 and the Black Panthers (1960s -1970s).

The role and significance of individuals in the struggle for civil rights, for example Martin Luther King Jr, Rosa Parkes, and Malcolm X.

The methods employed by civil rights movements in the United States across the period, including local and national boycotts, direct action and political agitation (for example voter registration).

The nature and extent of the opposition to civil rights, with particular reference to the role of the Lily-White Movement, the Ku Klux Klan, and the White Citizens’ Council.

The significance of key events in bringing about social and political change, including the role of African Americans in World War II, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the desegregation of Little Rock High School, the Freedom Rides, the March on Washington and the ‘Mississippi Freedom Summer’ of 1964.

The significance of legislative change, including the United States Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Civil Rights Act (1964), and the attitudes of presidents for example Franklin Roosevelt, John F Kennedy and Lyndon B Johnson.

The influence of the US civil rights movement beyond the US.

**Workers’ movements**

Students study this topic with reference to Australia and one other Western society to investigate:

The development of protest movements during the Industrial Revolution, for example the Tolpuddle Martyrs; Chartists; and the International Workingmen’s Association; the formation of trade unions, moves to regulate employment; and demands for an eight-hour day.

The emergence of political parties (labor and non-labor) in Western countries in the 19th and 20th centuries, the role of trade unions in their formation, and the policies and methods of workers’ parties.

The different aims and objectives of international organisations, for example: Industrial Workers of the World (1905), the International Labour Organisation (1919), and the International Federation of Trade Unions (1919), and the methods they used to advance workers’ interests.

Specific achievements relating to workers’ rights, including the eight-hour day and the minimum wage, the significance of Articles 23 and 24 in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), and the strategy of recognising inalienable workers’ rights on a global scale.

The post-war economic boom and the increase in the wage standards of workers’ in the West in the second half of the 20th century; and increased opportunities including education, training and social mobility.

The significance of changes to workers’ rights during the 20th century, including the provision of minimum wages; limitations on working hours; restrictions on child labour; the right to industrial arbitration; and changing rights and responsibilities of employers, and their role in supporting workers’, including occupational health and safety.

**An alternative significant movement**

An alternative significant movement for change may be chosen as one of the two topics of study in this unit. This could facilitate comparisons in terms of the far-reaching consequences of the developments. Any topic other than the suggested topic electives should be selected on the basis of the following criteria.

The movement:

- is within the 20th century period;
- affected large numbers of people;
- led to profound change within society;
- had longer-term consequences;
- has relevance for contemporary concerns, ideas, beliefs, values and motivations.

Relevant examples of significant movements could include: the end of Apartheid in South Africa; the pro-democracy movement in Burma; and movements related to one or more of the following: internationalism, anti-nuclear, environmental sustainability.

**Modern History – Unit 1 and Unit 2**

Knowledge and understanding

**A.**

- evaluates the extent of change and continuity how it affected the lives of individuals and groups in different times and places;
- evaluates the important causes of change and continuity in particular contexts;
- analyses how different perspectives and responses to ideas, movements and developments shaped people’s lives and actions in the past;
- evaluates the significance of ideas, movements, events and developments at the time and to the contemporary world;
- analyses the contestable nature of different interpretations and representations of events, movements and developments, and evaluates their usefulness in explaining the past.

**B.**

- explains change and continuity and analyses how the lives of individuals and groups were affected in different times and places;
- explains important causes of change and continuity in particular contexts;
- explains the different perspectives and responses to ideas, movements and developments that shaped people’s lives and actions in the past;
- explains ideas, movements, events and developments and their significance at the time and to the contemporary world;
- explains the contestable nature of different interpretations and representations of events, movements and developments and analyses their usefulness in explaining the past.

**C.**

- describes change and continuity and the impact on the lives of individuals and groups;
- describes important causes of change and continuity in particular contexts;
- describes different perspectives and responses to ideas, movements and developments shaping people’s lives;
- describes ideas, movements, events and developments and their significance;
- describes contested views of events, movements, developments and their usefulness in explaining the past.

**D.**

- identifies change and continuity and how individuals and groups were affected;
- identifies some causes of change and continuity in particular contexts;
- identifies different responses to ideas, movements and developments;
- describes ideas, movements, events and developments;
- describes different interpretations and representations of past events.

**E.**

- identifies how some aspects of the past changed and how others remained the same;
- identifies why some aspects of the past changed and why others remained the same;
- identifies responses to ideas, movements and developments;
- identifies ideas, movements, events and developments;
- identifies interpretations and representations of past events.

Inquiry and Skills

**A.**

- undertakes an historical inquiry selecting and using relevant evidence based on a critical evaluation of reliable and useful sources;
- critically evaluates alternative historical interpretations and representations by selecting and using relevant evidence from a range of sources;
- develops convincing historical arguments with valid and sustained reasoning by synthesising relevant evidence from different sources, and by acknowledging alternative interpretations;
- communicates complex ideas and coherent and sustained arguments using relevant evidence, appropriate language and accurate referencing.

**B.**

- undertakes an historical inquiry selecting and using relevant evidence based on an assessment of reliable and useful sources;
- analyses different historical interpretations and representations selecting and using relevant evidence from a range of sources;
- develops convincing historical arguments with valid reasoning by synthesising relevant evidence from different sources, and by acknowledging different interpretations;
- communicates ideas and coherent arguments using relevant evidence, appropriate language and accurate referencing.

**C.**

- undertakes an historical inquiry selecting and using evidence from a range of appropriate sources;
- explains different historical interpretations and representations using available evidence;
- develops reasoned historical arguments using evidence from different sources, and with reference to some interpretations;
- communicates ideas and arguments using appropriate language and accurate referencing.

**D.**

- researches a historical inquiry and locates answers in sources;
- identifies historical interpretations and representations;
- develops historical accounts using evidence from a limited number of sources;
- communicates a limited argument with referencing.

**E.**

- researches a topic and locates answers;
- identifies different viewpoints about the past;
- recounts historical events;
- communicates information with minimal referencing.